ุงู„ู„ุงู‡ูˆุช ุงู„ุฏูุงุนูŠ

ุฃูˆุฑุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูˆุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ุชูˆุฑุงุฉ

๏ปฟ

ุฃูˆุฑุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูˆุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ุชูˆุฑุงุฉ

ุฃูˆุฑุฌุงู†ูˆุณ
ูˆุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ุชูˆุฑุงุฉ

ุงู„ุฑุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ู‡ู„ ุงุนุชุฑุงู ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุฃูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุจุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ุชูˆุฑุงู‡

ู†ุต
ุงู„ุดุจู‡ุฉ:

ุฅุนุชุฑุงู ุฃูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุจุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ

ูŠุนุฏ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ุฃูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ
(ุฃูˆุฑูŠุฌูŠู†ูˆุณ) ุฃุญุฏ
ูƒุจุงุฑ ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุงู„ู†ุตุงุฑูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุฑู† ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ ูˆุฃูƒุซุฑู‡ู… ุฏุฑุงูŠุฉ ุจุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ูู‚ุฏ ู‚ุถูŠ ู…ุนุธู… ุญูŠุงุชู‡
ููŠ ุฏุฑุงุณุฉ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ูˆู…ู‚ุงุฑู†ุฉ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉ ูˆุชุนุชุจุฑ ู†ุณุฎุชู‡ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูˆูุฉ ุจ ู‡ูŠูƒุณุงุจู„ุง ุฃู‡ู… ู†ุณุฎุฉ
ู„ู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ุฅุฐ ุฌู…ุนุช ุณุชุฉ ู†ุณุฎ ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจ ูˆุงุญุฏ.
. ููŠ
ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุจูŠู† ูŠุฏูŠูƒ ูŠุซุจุช
ุฃูˆุฑุฌุงู†ูˆุณ
ุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู„ู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ุจุฃุฏู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ุฌุฏูŠุฏ

A Letter from Origen to Africanus

ย ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุฃูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ (ุฃูˆุฑูŠุฌูŠู†ูˆุณ)
ุฅู„ูŠ ูŠูˆู„ูŠูˆุณ ุงู„ุฃูุฑูŠู‚ูŠ

1 ุณู„ุงู… ู…ู† ุฃูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ
ุฅู„ูŠ ุฃูุฑูŠูƒุงู†ูˆุณ
(ูŠูˆู„ูŠูˆุณ ุงู„ุฃูุฑูŠู‚ูŠ) ุงู„ุญุจูŠุจ
ููŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุขุจ
, ุฎู„ุงู„ ุงุจู†ู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูˆุณ ูŠุณูˆุน ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ.

ุนุฑูุช ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ ุฑุณุงู„ุชูƒ, ุฑุฃูŠูƒ
ููŠ
ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ู‡ ุงู„ู…ุฐูƒูˆุฑุฉ ููŠ ุณูุฑ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„,
ุฐุงูƒ ุงู„ุณูุฑ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠู‚ุฑุฃ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ, ุฑุบู…
ุฃู†ู‡ ูˆุงุถุญ ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ู†ู‚ุต ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ู†ูˆุนุง ู…ุง
, ูˆู…ุน
ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ู…ุนุถู„ุงุช ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ููŠ ูƒู„ู…ุงุชู‡ุง ุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุฉ ุฅู„ุง ุฅู†ู‡ ู„ุง ู…ุนุถู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุนุถู„ุงุช ุชุณุชู„ุฒู… ุจุญุซุง
ูƒุงู…ู„ุง
, ูˆูŠูƒููŠู†ุง ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ู…ุทูˆู„ุฉ

ย ูˆุฅุฐุง ุฃู…ุนู†ุช ุงู„ู†ุธุฑ ููŠ ู…ู‚ุฏุฑุชูŠ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ูŠุฉ ุญุณุจ ู…ุนุฑูุชูŠ,
ุฃุฑูŠ ุฅู†ูŠ ุบูŠุฑ ู…ุคู‡ู„ ู„ุฃู† ุฃุฑุฏ ุนู„ูŠูƒ ุจุงู„ุฏู‚ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุทู„ูˆุจุฉ ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ูˆุถูˆุน ,
ุจุงู„ุฅุถุงูุฉ ุฅู„ูŠ ุฐู„ูƒ, ูุฅู† ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู…
ุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‚ุถูŠุชู‡ุง ููŠ ู†ูŠูƒูˆู…ูŠุฏูŠุง ู„ู… ุชูƒู† ูƒุงููŠุฉ ู„ูƒุชุงุจุฉ ุฑุฏ ูŠุณุชูˆููŠ ุงุณุชูุณุงุฑุงุชูƒ ูˆุทู„ุจุงุชูƒ
ูˆู„ุง ุญุชู‰ ุนู„ูŠ ู‡ูŠุฆุฉ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ
, ูู„ุชุนุฐุฑู†ูŠ
ููŠ ุชู‚ุตูŠุฑูŠ ูˆุถูŠู‚ ูˆู‚ุชูŠ ูˆู„ุชู‚ุฑุฃ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุจุชู…ุนู† ูˆุณูˆู ุฃู…ุฏูƒ ุฅู† ูƒุงู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ู…ุง ู„ู… ุฃุฐูƒุฑู‡

2 ู„ู‚ุฏ ุจุฏุฃุช ุฑุณุงู„ุชูƒ ุจู‚ูˆู„ูƒ ุฃู†ูŠ ููŠ ู†ู‚ุงุดูŠ ู…ุน ุตุฏูŠู‚ู†ุง
ุจุณูˆุณ ุฐูƒุฑุช ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ ู…ู† ู†ุจูˆุฉ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ
,
ูˆู‚ู„ุช ุฃู†ูŠ ุฐูƒุฑุช ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ูˆูƒุฃู†ูŠ ู„ู… ุฃู†ุชุจู‡ ุฅู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฌุฒุก ู…ู† ู†ุจูˆุฉ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ุฒุงุฆูุฉ,
ูˆู‚ู„ุช ุฃูŠุถุง ุฃู†ูƒ ุชู…ุฏุญ ููŠ ูู‚ุฑุงุช ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ ูˆุชุฑูŠ ุนุจุงุฑุงุชู‡ุง ุฑุดูŠู‚ุฉ ุบูŠุฑ ุงู†ูƒ
ุชุฌุฏ ููŠู‡ุง ุฃุฎุทุงุก ูˆุฃู†ู‡ุง ู‚ุฏ ูƒุชุจุช ุญุฏูŠุซุง ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูู‡ูŠ ูู‚ุฑุฉ ู…ุฒูˆุฑุฉ
, ูˆุฃุถูุช
ุฃู† ุงู„ุดุฎุต ุงู„ู…ุฒูˆุฑู„ู‡ุง ู„ุฌุฃ ุฅู„ูŠ ู…ุง ู„ู… ูŠู„ุฌุฃ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ุญุชู‰ ุงู„ูƒุงุชุจ ุงู„ู…ุณุฑุญูŠ ูู„ุณุชูˆู† ููŠ ุชู„ุงุนุจู‡ ุจุงู„ุฃู„ูุงุธ
ุจูŠู† ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุจุฑูŠู†ูˆุณ
prinos ูˆุจุฑูŠุณู† preisen ูˆุณูŠุดูŠุณ ุณูŠุดูŠู†ูˆุณ, ุชู„ูƒ
ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ููŠ ู†ุทู‚ู‡ู… ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฅุณุชุฎุฏุงู…ู‡ุง ุจู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉ ูˆู„ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฐุงู„ูƒ ุจุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ

ููŠ ุงู„ุฑุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูƒ ู…ุง ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ุฃู† ู†ูุนู„ู‡ ููŠ ู…ุซู„ ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุช ูˆู„ูŠุณ
ูู‚ุท ููŠ ุญุงู„ุฉ ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ
, ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ
ุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ุฌุฏู‡ุง ููŠ ูƒู„ ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ
ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ
ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠุณุชุฎุฏู…ู‡ุง
ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠูˆู†
, ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ุง ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ,
ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ุฃูŠุถุง ู„ุง ุชุญุชูˆ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ูู‚ุฑุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‚ู„ุช ุฃู†ู‡ุง ููŠ ุขุฎุฑ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ,
ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุงู„ุตู†ู… ุจุงู„ ูˆุงู„ุชู†ูŠู†โ€™ ู„ูŠุณุช ูู‚ุท ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ูู‚ุฑุงุช ุจู„ ุขู„ุงู
ุงู„ูู‚ุฑุงุช
, ูˆู„ู‚ุฏ ุฃุฏุฑูƒุช ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒู†ุช ุจุฅู…ูƒุงู†ูŠุงุชูŠ ุงู„ุตุบูŠุฑุฉ ุฃุฌู…ุน
ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู…ุน ู†ุณุฎุชู†ุง
.

ูˆููŠ ุณูุฑ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ู†ูุณู‡ ูˆุฌุฏุช ูƒู„ู…ุฉ (ุฃูˆุซู‚)
ุชู„ุชู‡ุง ู†ุตูˆุต ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎุชู†ุง ูˆู„ุง ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู†ู‡ุงุฆูŠุง,.ุจุฏุฃ
ู…ู†
(ุญุณุจ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ู…ุชุฏุงูˆู„ุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู†ูŠุณุฉ)
ูˆุตู„ูŠ ุญู†ู†ูŠุง ูˆุนุฒุฑูŠุง ูˆู…ูŠุดุงุฆูŠู„ูˆ ูˆุฑู†ู…ูˆุง
ู„ู„ุฑุจ
ุฅู„ูŠ ุจุงุฑูƒูˆุง
ูŠุง ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู‚ุงู†ุชูŠู† ุงู„ุฑุจ ุงู„ู‡ ุงู„ุงู„ู‡ุฉ ุณุจุญูˆุง ูˆุงุนุชุฑููˆุง ู„ุงู† ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงุจุฏ ุฑุญู…ุชู‡ ูˆุญูŠู†ุฆุฐ ุณู…ุนู‡ู…
ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ูˆู‡ู… ูŠุฑู†ู…ูˆู† ุจ ุจ ุจ ุจ ุจ

[1]
ุฃูˆ ูƒู…ุง ููŠ ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุฃุฎุฑูŠ ูˆู…ุดูˆุง
ููŠ ูˆุณุท ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ ูŠุณุจุญูˆู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆูŠู…ุฌุฏูˆู† ุงู„ุฑุจ
ุฅู„ูŠ
ุจุงุฑูƒูˆุง ูŠุง ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู‚ุงู†ุชูŠู† ุงู„ุฑุจ ุงู„ู‡
ุงู„ุขู„ู‡ุฉ ุณุจุญูˆุง ูˆุงุนุชุฑููˆุง ู„ุงู† ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงุจุฏ ุฑุญู…ุชู‡

ุฃู…ุง ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ูุนุจุงุฑุฉ ” ูˆู‡ุคู„ุงุก
ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ ุดุฏุฑุฎ ูˆู…ูŠุดุฎ ูˆุนุจุฏ ู†ุบูˆ ุณู‚ุทูˆุง ู…ูˆุซู‚ูŠู† ููŠ ูˆุณุท ุฃุชูˆู† ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ ุงู„ู…ุชู‚ุฏุฉ
.”
ุชู„ูŠู‡ุง ู…ุจุงุดุฑุฉ “: ุญูŠู†ุฆุฐ ุชุญูŠู‘ุฑ
ู†ุจูˆุฎุฐู†ุงุตู‘ุฑ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ูˆู‚ุงู… ู…ุณุฑุนุง ูุฃุฌุงุจ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู„ู…ุดูŠุฑูŠู‡ ุฌ
ุฌ ุฌ ุฌ ุฌ
ุฃู„ู… ู†ู„ู‚ูŠ ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ุฑุฌุงู„ ู…ูˆุซู‚ูŠู† ููŠ ูˆุณุท
ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ
.ูุฃุฌุงุจูˆุง
ูˆู‚ุงู„ูˆุง ู„ู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุตุญูŠุญ ุฃูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ
. ุฃุฌุงุจ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู‡ุง ุงู†ุง ู†ุงุธุฑ ุฃุฑุจุนุฉ ุฑุฌุงู„ ู…ุญู„ูˆู„ูŠู† ูŠุชู…ุดูˆู† ููŠ ูˆุณุท ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ
ูˆู…ุง ุจู‡ู… ุถุฑุฑ ูˆู…ู†ุธุฑ ุงู„ุฑุงุจุน ุดุจูŠู‡ ุจุงุจู† ุงู„ุขู„ู‡ุฉ

ุฃูƒูŠู„ุง ูˆู‡ูˆ ูŠุชุจุน ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู‚ุฏ ุฐูƒุฑู‡ุง ูˆู‡ูˆ ู…ู…ู† ูŠุดู‡ุฏ ู„ู‡ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุฃู†ู‡
ุชุฑุฌู… ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ุจุนู†ุงูŠุฉ ุบูŠุฑ ุนุงุฏูŠุฉ
, ูˆุชุนุชุจุฑ
ุชุฑุฌู…ุชู‡ ู…ู† ุฃูุถู„ ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ุงุช ู„ุชูŠ ูŠุณุชุฎุฏู…ู‡ุง ู…ู† ู„ุง ูŠุฌูŠุฏ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
. ุฏุฏุฏุฏุฏุฏุฏ

ย ู…ู† ุถู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฐูƒุฑุชู‡ุง,
ู†ุณุฎุชูŠู† ุชุญุช ุญูˆุฒุชูŠ ุฅุญุฏุงู‡ู…ุง ุชุชุจุน ุงู„ู†ู‡ุฌ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠ ูˆุงู„ุฃุฎุฑูŠ ู†ู‡ุฌ ุซูŠูˆุฏูˆุดู†
, ูˆุงู„ู†ุณุฎุชุงู† ุชุฐูƒุฑุงู† ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูˆุตูุชู‡ุง ุจุฃู†ู‡ุง
ู‚ุตุฉ ู…ูุจุฑูƒุฉ
, ูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฌุงุกุช ููŠ ุขุฎุฑ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ู…ุฐูƒูˆุฑุฉ,
ูˆู…ุฌู…ูˆุนู‡ุง ุญุณุจ ุชู‚ุฏูŠุฑูŠ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† ู…ุงุฆุชูŠู† ุขูŠุฉ

3 ูˆููŠ ุฃู…ุงูƒู† ุฃุฎุฑูŠ ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ูˆุญุฏุช ุฅุถุงูุงุช
ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎุชู†ุง ูˆู„ุง ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
, ูˆุฃุญูŠู†ุง
ูˆุฌุฏุช ู†ุณุฎุชู†ุง ุชู†ู‚ุตู‡ุง ู†ุตูˆุตุง ู†ุฌุฏู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
, ูˆุณูˆู
ุฃู‚ุฏู… ุนุฏุฉ ุฃู…ุซู„ุฉ ุญูŠุซ ูŠุตุนุจ ุฃู† ุฃุฐูƒุฑ ูƒู„ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต

ุฃุฏุนูŠุฉ ุฃุณุชูŠุฑ ูˆู…ุฑุฏุฎุงูŠ ููŠ ุณูุฑ ุฃุณุชูŠุฑ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู…ู† ุดุฃู†ู‡ุง ุฃู† ุชู‡ุฐุจ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฑูŠ ู„ู…
ุชุฐูƒุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
, ูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต
ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุฑุณุงุฆู„ ุฃุณุชูŠุฑ ุฅู„ูŠ ู…ุฑุฏุฎุงูŠ ูˆู„ุง ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ู…ูˆุฌู‡ุฉ ู„ู‡ุงู…ุงู† ุนู† ุฅุจุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูˆู„ุง
ุนู† ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ู…ุฑุฏูˆุฎ ุจุงุณู… ุฃุญุดูˆุจูŠุฑุด ู„ุฅู†ู‚ุงุฐ ุงู„ุดุนุจ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠ

ูˆ ููŠ ุณูุฑ ุฃูŠูˆุจ, ุงู„ุนุจุงุฑุงุช
ู…ูƒุชูˆุจ ุงู†ู‡ ุณูˆู ูŠู‚ูˆู… ู…ุฑุฉ ุฃุฎุฑูŠ ู…ุน ุงู„ุฐูŠู†
ูŠู‚ูŠู…ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฑุจ
ุฅู„ูŠ ุงู„ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ,
ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุนุจุงุฑุงุช ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ูˆู„ุง ููŠ ุชุฑุฌู…ุฉ ุฃูƒูŠู„ู‡ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ
ุจูŠู†ู…ุง ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ
(ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ุฉ) ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ
ูˆู†ุณุฎุฉ ุซูŠูˆุฏุณุชู†
, ูˆูŠุชูˆุงูู‚ุงู† ู…ุนุง ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ุฃู‚ู„ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ

ูˆู‚ุฏ ูˆุฌุฏุช ููŠ ุฃู…ุงูƒู† ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ููŠ ุณูุฑ ุฃูŠูˆุจ ู†ุตูˆุตุง ุฅุถุงููŠุฉ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎุชู†ุง,
ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฅุถุงูุงุช ุฃุญูŠุงู†ุง ุตุบูŠุฑุฉ ูˆุฃุญูŠุงู†ุง ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ูƒุซุฑุฉ ู‡ุงุฆู„ุฉ ,
ูู…ู† ุงู„ุฅุถุงูุงุช ุงู„ุทููŠูุฉ ุนู„ูŠ ุณุจูŠู„ ุงู„ู…ุซุงู„, ู†ุฌุฏู‡ุง
ุจุนุฏ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ
ูˆุจูƒู‘ุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ุบุฏ ูˆุงุตุนุฏ ู…ุญุฑู‚ุงุช ุนู„ู‰ ุนุฏุฏู‡ู…
” [2] ูŠุถุงู ุจุนุฏู‡ุง
ุนุฌู„ ุตุบูŠุฑ ู„ุฎุทุงูŠุง ุฃุฑูˆุงุญู‡ู… ุฅู„ูŠ:
ุฌุงุก ู…ู„ุงุฆูƒุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ูŠู…ุซู„ูˆุง ุฃู…ุงู… ุงู„ุฑุจ
ูˆุฌุงุก ุงู„ุดูŠุทุงู† ุฃูŠุถุง ููŠ ูˆุณุทู‡ู…
[3]

ู…ู† ุงู„ุฌูˆู„ุงู† ููŠ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ูˆู…ู† ุงู„ุชู…ุดูŠ ููŠู‡ุง
ุซู… ุจุนุฏ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ
ุงู„ุฑุจ ุฃุนุทูŠ ู„ุฑุจ ุฃุฎุฐ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
ู„ูŠุณ ููŠู‡ุง
ูˆูƒุงู† ูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุฅุฐ ู‚ุฏ ุจุฏุง ุฌูŠุฏุง ู„ู„ุฑุจ
ูƒู…ุง ุฃู† ู…ุญุชูˆูŠุงุช ู†ุณุฎุชู†ุง ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุจูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ุนู†ุฏ ุญุฏูŠุซ ุฒูˆุฌุฉ
ุฃูŠูˆุจ ู„ู‡
, ุจุฏุฃ ู…ู† ู‚ูˆู„ ุฅู„ูŠ
ู…ุชู‰ ุชุตุจุฑ ูู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‡ุง ุฃู†ุชุธุฑ ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุง
, ุงู†ุชุธุฑ ุฃู…ู„
ุฎู„ุงุตูŠ
ุฅู„ูŠ ุญุชู‰
ุชู†ุชู‡ูŠ ุขู„ุงู…ูŠ ูˆุฃุญุฒุงู†ูŠ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุชูˆู‚ู†ูŠ
ุฃู†ุง ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ
ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ูู„ุง ุชุญุชูˆูŠ ุณูˆูŠ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ
ุฃู„ุนู† ุงู„ุฑุจ
ูˆู…ุช
” [4]

ูˆู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุงุญูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑูŠ, ู†ุฌุฏ ู†ุตูˆุต
ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ุฎู„ุงู„ ุณูุฑ ุฃูŠูˆุจ ุชูุชู‚ุฏู‡ุง ู†ุณุฎุชู†ุง
, ุนุงู…ุฉ
ุฃุฑุจุน ุฃูˆ ุฎู…ุณ ุขูŠุงุช
(ุฃุนุฏุงุฏ)
ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃุญูŠุงู†ุง ุงู„ู†ู‚ุต ูŠุชุฑุงูˆุญ ู…ุง ุจูŠู† ุฃุฑุจุนุฉ ุนุดุฑ ุฅู„ูŠ ุชุณุนุฉ ุนุดุฑ ุขูŠุฉ ููŠ (ู…ุฎุชู„ู
ู†ุณุฎู†ุง
) ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ู…ุงุฐุง ุฃุณุฑุฏ ูƒู„ ุงู„ุฃู…ุซู„ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฌู…ุนุชู‡ุง ุจู…ุดู‚ุฉ,
ูƒูŠ ุฃุซุจุช ู„ูƒ ุฃู† ุงู„ููˆุงุฑู‚ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ูˆู†ุณุฎู†ุง ู„ู… ุฃุบูู„ ุนู†ู‡ุŸ ููŠ ุงุฑู…ูŠุง
ู„ุงุญุธุช ุฃู…ุซู„ุฉ ุนุฏูŠุฏุฉ
, ุจู„ ุฃู†ูŠ ูˆุฌุฏุช ููŠ ุงุฑู…ูŠุง ุชุบูŠุฑุงุช
ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ููŠ ู…ูˆุงู‚ุน ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ูˆุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช ููŠ ู‚ุฑุฃู‡ ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุจูˆุงุช
, ูˆููŠ
ุณูุฑ ุงู„ุชูƒูˆูŠู† ููŠ ู†ุต ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก
, ุนุจุงุฑุฉ
ูˆุฑูŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุฃู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุญุณู† ู‡ ู‡ ู‡ ู‡ ูˆู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุฌุฏุงู„ ุตุบูŠุฑ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู… ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ.
ูˆููŠ ูˆู…ุซุงู„ ุขุฎุฑ ู†ุฌุฏู‡ ููŠ ุณูุฑ ุงู„ุชูƒูˆูŠู†, ูˆู‚ุฏ
ุนู„ู…ุช ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ู„ุฃุฌู„ ุงู„ุชู…ูŠูŠุฒ ุจุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠุณู…ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠูˆู† ุงู„ู…ุณู„ุฉ

ูƒู…ุง ุฃู†ูŠ ุฃุดุฑุช ุจุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ู†ุฌู…ูŠุฉ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุญุชูˆูŠู‡ุง ู†ุณุฎู†ุง ูˆู„ุง ุชุญุชูˆูŠู‡ุง
ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
. ูˆู…ุงุฐุง ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ุนู† ุณูุฑ ุงู„ุฎุฑูˆุฌ ุญูŠุซ ุชุฌุฏ ุงู„ุชุถุงุฑุจ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต
ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุฎูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ุงุฌุชู…ุงุน ูˆู…ุญูƒู…ุชู‡ุง ูˆูˆ ูˆูˆ ูˆูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ
ู…ู„ุงุจุณ ุงู„ูƒู‡ู†ุฉ ูˆุฑุฆูŠุณ ุงู„ูƒู‡ู†ุฉ
, ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต
ุฃุญูŠุงู†ุง ู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุชุดุงุจู‡ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู…ุง ุญุชู‰ ููŠ ู…ุถู…ูˆู† ู…ุนุงู†ูŠู‡ุง
, ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง
ู†ู„ุงุญุธ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ุฑูุถ ููˆุฑุง ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ู…ุณุชุฎุฏู…ุฉ ููŠ ูƒู†ุงุฆุณู†ุง ุจุงุนุชุจุงุฑู‡ุง ู…ุญุฑูุฉ
ูˆู†ูุฑุถ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ุฅุฎูˆุฉ ุฃู† ูŠุชุฑูƒูˆุง ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ูˆูŠุชู„ุทููˆุง
ุฅู„ูŠ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูƒูŠ ูŠุนุทูˆู†ุง ู†ุณุฎ ู„ู… ูŠุชู„ุงุนุจ ุจู‡ุง ูˆู„ูŠุณ ููŠู‡ุง ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑ
!,
ุฃู… ู†ุญุณุจ ุฃู† ุงู„ุนู†ุงูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฅู„ู‡ูŠุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ูˆุฎุฏู…ุชู‡ุง ููŠ ุชูˆุนูŠุฉ ุงู„ูƒู†ูŠุณุฉ
ู„ู… ุชููƒุฑ ููŠ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุฏูุน ู„ู‡ู… ุงู„ุซู…ู† ูˆู…ุงุช ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ู‡ู… ุฅุฐ ู„ู… ูŠุณุชุซู†ูŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุดูŠุฆุง
ููŠ ุญุจู‡ ุญุชู‰ ุฃุจู†ู‡ ุชุฎู„ูŠ ุนู†ู‡ ูˆุจุฐู„ู‡ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ู†ุง
, ูˆุจู‡
ูŠุนุทูŠู†ุง ูƒู„ ุดูŠุก

ย 

ู„ุง ุชู†ู‚ู„ ุงู„ุชุฎู… ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูˆุถุนู‡ ุขุจุงุคูƒ

5 ููŠ ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุช ุชู…ุนู† ู…ุง ุฅู† ูƒุงู† ู„ูŠุณ ุญุณู†ุง ุฃู†
ูŠุฐูƒุฑ ู‚ูˆู„
ู„ุง ุชู†ู‚ู„ ุงู„ุชุฎูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูˆุถุนู‡ุง
ุขุจุงุคูƒ
ูˆู„ุง ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุฃุชุฌู†ุจ ุงู„ุชุญู‚ูŠู‚ ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจ
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูˆู…ู‚ุงุฑู†ุชู‡ุง ุจู†ุณุฎู†ุง ูˆู…ู„ุงุญุธุฉ ุงู„ููˆุงุฑู‚
, ูู‚ุฏ
ูุนู„ุช ุฐู„ูƒ ุฅู„ูŠ ุญุฏ ุจุนุจุฏ ู‚ุฏุฑ ุฅู…ูƒุงู†ูŠ
, ูˆู„ุง ุชุนุชุจุฑ
ู‚ูˆู„ูŠ ู†ูˆุนุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุบุทุฑุณุฉ
, ูู‚ุฏ ุจุฐู„ุช
ุฌู‡ุฏุง ูƒุจูŠุฑุง ู„ู„ูˆุตูˆู„ ุฅู„ูŠ ู…ุนุงู†ูŠ ูƒู„ ุงู„ุทุจุนุงุช ูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ุงู„ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฑูƒุฒุช ููŠ ุนู…ู„ูŠ
ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ุฎุดูŠุฉ ุฃู† ูŠู‚ุงู„ ุฃู†ูŠ ุฃู†ุณุจ ุงู„ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑ ุฅู„ูŠ ูƒู„ ุงู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ
,
ูˆุจุฐู„ูƒ ุฃู…ู†ุญ ูุฑุตุฉ ู„ู…ู† ูŠุจุญุซูˆู† ุนู† ุฃูŠ ู†ู‚ุทุฉ ูŠู†ุทู„ู‚ูˆุง ู…ู†ู‡ุง ู„ู„ุงูุชุฑุงุก ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ุฅุฎูˆุฉ,
ูˆู„ุฏูŠ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุฑุบุจุฉ ุนุงุฑู…ุฉ ููŠ ุชูˆุฌูŠู‡ ุงู„ุงุชู‡ุงู…ุงุช ุฅู„ูŠ ุงู„ู†ุฎุจุฉ ู…ู† ุฌู…ุงุนุชู†ุง,
ูˆุฃู†ุง ุฃุณุนูŠ ุฅู„ูŠ ู…ุนุฑูุฉ ุงู„ููˆุงุฑู‚ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ูˆุนุฏู… ุงู„ุฌู‡ู„ ุจู‡ุง ูƒูŠ ุฃุชู…ูƒู† ููŠ
ุฌุฏุงู„ูŠ ู…ุน ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุฃู† ุฃุณุชุญุถุฑ ุงู„ุดูˆุงู‡ุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู…ุฐูƒูˆุฑุฉ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎู‡ู…
,
ูˆุฃูŠุถุง ูƒูŠ ุฃุณุชุดู‡ุฏ ุจุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ุชูŠ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎู‡ู… ุญุชู‰ ูˆุฅู† ูƒุงู†ุช ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ ู†ุณุฎู†ุง,
ูุฅู†ู†ุง ุฅู† ุชู‡ูŠุฃู†ุง ู„ู‡ู… ููŠ ู†ู‚ุงุดู†ุง ู…ุนู‡ู… ู„ู† ูŠุณุชุทูŠุนูˆุง ุฃู† ูŠุณุฎุฑูˆุง ู…ู†ุง ู†ุญู†
ุงู„ุฃู…ูŠูŠู†
, ูู…ู† ุฃุฎู„ุงู‚ู‡ู… ุงู„ุณูŠุฆุฉ ุฃู† ูŠุญุชู‚ุฑูˆู†ู†ุง ู‚ุงุฆู„ูŠู†
ุฅู† ุงู„ุฃู…ู…ูŠูŠู† ู„ูŠุณ ู„ุฏูŠู‡ู… ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุตุญูŠุญุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ููŠ ุญูˆุฒุชู‡ู…
,

ุฃู…ุง ุนู† ุนุฏู… ุฐูƒุฑ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู„ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ

6 ุฏุนู†ุง ุงู„ุขู† ู†ู†ุธุฑ ุฅู„ูŠ ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุฌุฏ ููŠู‡ุง ุฃุฎุทุงุก
ููŠ ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ
, ูˆู„ู†ุจุฏุฃ ุจู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ู…ุญุชู…ู„ ุฅู† ูŠุณุจุจ ุนุฏู… ุชู‚ุจู„ ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ,
ุฃู‚ุตุฏ ุงู„ุชู„ุงุนุจ ุจูŠู† ูƒู„ู…ุชูŠ ุจุฑูŠู†ูˆุณ ูˆุจุฑูŠุณูŠ ูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุดูŠู†ูˆุณ ูˆุดูŠุณูŠุณ,
ุชู‚ูˆู„ ุฃู† ู‡ุฐุง ู…ู…ูƒู† ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู„ุฃู†ู‡
ู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุชู‚ุงุฑุจ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุชูŠู† ููŠ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
. ูˆู„ูƒู†ูŠ
ุฃุดูƒ ููŠ ุตุญุฉ ู‚ูˆู„ูƒ
, ู„ุฃู†ูŠ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุจุญุซุช ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ู‚ุทุฉ
(ูู‚ุฏ ูƒู†ุช ุฃุฑูŠ ู†ูุณ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒู„ุฉ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„)
ู„ู‚ุฏ ุงุณุชุดุฑุช ุนุฏุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุนู† ุงู„ู…ูˆุถูˆุน, ุณุฃู„ุชู‡ู…
ุนู† ุงู„ู…ุฑุงุฏู ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ู„ูƒู„ู…ุชูŠ ุจุฑูŠู†ูˆุณ ูˆุจุฑุฆุณูŠู† ูˆู…ุงุฐุง ูŠุณู…ูˆู† ุดุฌุฑุฉ ุณุดูŠู†ูˆุณ ุฒุณูŠุดูŠุณ
,
ูˆู„ู… ูŠุนุฑููˆุง ูƒู„ู…ุชูŠ ุจุฑูŠู†ูˆุณ ูˆุณุดูŠู†ูˆุณ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุชูŠู† ูˆุทู„ุจูˆุง ู…ู†ูŠ ุฃู† ุฃุฑูŠู‡ู… ุงู„ุฃุดุฌุงุฑ
ูƒูŠ ูŠุฎุจุฑูˆู†ูŠ ู…ุงุฐุง ูŠุณู…ูˆู†ู‡ุง ุจุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
, ูˆู„ู„ุชูˆ ูุนู„ุช
ุฐู„ูƒ
(ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ุฃูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ุนุฒูŠุฒ)
ูˆูˆุถุนุช ุฃู…ุงู…ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฃุดุฌุงุฑ, ูู‚ุงู„
ุฃุญุฏู‡ู… ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ูŠุณู…ูŠ ุฃูŠ ุดูŠุก ุจุซู‚ุฉ ู…ุง ู„ู… ูŠุฐูƒุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ุชูˆุฑุงุฉ
,โ€™
ูˆุฅู† ุชุนุฐุฑ ุงู„ุญุตูˆู„ ุนู„ูŠ ู…ุฑุงุฏู ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ู„ูˆุงุญุฏ ุฃู† ูŠุณุชุฎุฏู… ู…ุฑุงุฏูู‡ุง ุงู„ุณุฑูŠุงู†ูŠ,
ูˆุฃุถุงู ู‚ุงุฆู„ุง, ุฃู† ุจุนุถ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช
ู„ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃุญุฏ ุชุฑุฌู…ุชู‡ุง ุญุชู‰
, ุซู… ู‚ุงู„ ุฃู†ู‡
ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ูƒู† ู„ู„ูˆุงุญุฏ ุญ ุญ ุญ ุญ ุญ ุฃู† ูŠุนุฑู ู…ุนู†ูŠ ุชู„ูƒ
ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุฅุฐุง ุนุฑูุช ุฃูŠู† ูˆุฑุฏุช ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฅู† ู„ู… ุชุฐูƒุฑ ู†ู‡ุงุฆูŠุง ูู„ุง ุณุจูŠู„ ุฅู„ูŠ ู…ุนุฑูุชู‡ุง

ู‡ุฐุง ู‡ูˆ ู…ุง ุฃุฎุจุฑู†ูŠ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู†ุงู‚ุดุชู‡, ูˆู‡ูˆ
ุดุฎุต ุนู„ูŠ ุฏุฑุงูŠุฉ ุจุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ
, ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุง
ุฃุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ุฃุชุณุฑุน ููŠ ุชุฃูƒูŠุฏ ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ู…ุง ูŠู…ุงุซู„ ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ููŠ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
,
ุฃู…ุง ุชุฃูƒูŠุฏูƒ ููŠ ุนุฏู… ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ุง ูุฃู†ุช ุชุนู„ู… ู…ุง ุจู†ูŠุช ุนู„ูŠู‡ ู†ุธุฑุชูƒ

7 ุนู„ุงูˆุฉ ุนู„ูŠ ุฐู„ูƒ, ุฃุฐูƒุฑ
ุฃู†ูŠ ุณู…ุนุช ู…ู† ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠ ุฏุงุฑุณ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงุจู† ู„ุญูƒูŠู… ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠโ€™ ูŠู‚ุงู„ ุฅู† ูˆุงู„ุฏู‡ ู…ุฑู†ู‡ ูˆุฃุนุฏู‡ ู„ูŠุฎู„ูู‡ ู…ู† ุจุนุฏู‡
, ู„ู‚ุฏ ุญุงูˆุฑุชู‡ ููŠ ุฃู…ูˆุฑ ุนุฏุฉ ูˆู„ู… ูŠุฑูุถ ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ
ูˆุฃุณู…ุงุก ุงู„ุดูŠุฎุงู† ูƒู…ุง ูˆุฑุฏุช ููŠ ุงุฑู…ูŠุง
ูŠุฌุนู„ูƒ
ุงู„ุฑุจ ู…ุซู„ ุตุฏู‚ูŠุง ูˆู…ุซู„ ุงุฎุขุจ ุงู„ู„ุฐูŠู† ุดูˆุงู‡ู…ุง ู…ู„ูƒ ุจุงุจู„ ุจุงู„ู†ุงุฑ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุฅุซู…ู‡ู…ุง ููŠ ุฅุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„
” [5] ูƒูŠู ุฅุฐู† ูŠู‚ุทุน ุฃุญุฏู‡ู…ุง ุจุงู„ู…ุดุงุฑ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„
ุงู„ู…ู„ุงุฆูƒุฉ ูˆูŠู…ุฒู‚ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑ ุฅุฑุจุง ุฅุฑุจุง
, ูˆุงู„ุฅุฌุงุจุฉ
ุนู„ูŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ู‡ูŠ ุฃู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ู†ุจูˆุงุช ุชุฎุต ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ุฏูŠู†ูˆู†ุฉ ุจุนุฏ ุงู„ุฑุญูŠู„ ู…ู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุนุงู„ู…
,
ู…ุซู„ (ู†ุจูˆุฉ)
ุฐุงูƒ ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ุงู„ุขุซู… ูˆุณูŠุฏู‡ ูˆู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ุณูŠุฏูŠ
ูŠุจุทุฆ ู‚ุฏูˆู…ู‡
ุซู… ูŠุณุชุณู„ู… ู„ู„ุดุฑุจ ูˆุงู„ุฃูƒู„ ู…ุน ุงู„ุณูƒุงุฑู‰
ูˆูŠุถุฑุจ ุฑูุงู‚ู‡ ุงู„ุนุจูŠุฏ
, ูˆุนู†ุฏ ู…ุฌูŠุก ุณูŠุฏู‡
ูŠู‚ุทุนู‡ ุฅุฑุจุง ูˆูŠุฌุนู„ ู†ุตูŠุจู‡ ู…ุน ุบูŠุฑ ุงู„ู…ุคู…ู†ูŠู†

ูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ู…ู„ุงูƒ ุงู„ู…ูˆูƒู„ ุจุงู„ุนุฐุงุจ ุณูˆู ูŠุชู…ู… ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃู…ูˆุฑ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ุฑุฌู„ูŠู† ุงู„ุฐูŠู†
ุฌุนู„ุง ุดูŠุฎูŠู† ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ู…ุง ุงุณุชุบู„ุง ู…ู†ุงุตุจู‡ู…ุง ููŠ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ุดุฑูŠุฑุฉ
, ุฃุญุฏู‡ู…ุง
ุณูˆู ูŠู‚ุทุน ุจุงู„ู…ู†ุดุงุฑ ู„ุธู„ู…ู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุถุงุก ุจุฅุฏุงู†ุฉ ุงู„ุจุฑูŠุก ูˆุชุจุฑุฆุฉ ุงู„ุฌุงู†ูŠ ูˆุงู„ุขุฎุฑ ุณูˆู ูŠู…ุฒู‚ ุฅุฑุจุง
ูˆู‡ูˆ ู„ูŠุณ ู…ู† ู†ุณู„ ูŠู‡ูˆุฐุง ุจู„ ู…ู† ู†ุณู„ ูƒู†ุนุงู† ูˆู‚ุฏ ูุชู†ู‡ ุงู„ุฌู…ุงู„ ูˆุฃุถู„ุช ุงู„ุดู‡ูˆุฉ ู‚ู„ุจู‡

ูˆุฃุนุฑู ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠุง ุขุฎุฑ ุฐูƒุฑ ุงู„ุดูŠุฎูŠู† ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงุชู‡ู…ุง ุชุธุงู‡ุฑุง ู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุงู„ู…ู†ููŠ ุงู„ุขู…ู„ูŠู†
ุจู…ุฌูŠ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ู„ูŠุญุฑุฑู‡ู… ู…ู† ุงู„ุนุจูˆุฏูŠุฉ.
. ุชุธุงู‡ุฑ ุงู„ุดูŠุฎุงู†
ุจู…ุนุฑูุฉ ูƒู„ ู…ุง ูŠุชุนู„ู‚ ุจุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ู…ุง ุจุฐู„ูƒ ุฎุฏุนุง ุฒูˆุฌุงุช ู…ูˆุงุทู†ูŠู‡ู…ุง ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„
ู„ุฃุญุฏู‡ู…ุง
ุฃูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ุชุนุชู‚ ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ุดุฑูŠุฑุฉ
ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู„ู„ุขุฎุฑ ู‡ูƒุฐุง ูƒู†ุชู…ุง
ุชุตู†ุนุงู† ู…ุน ุจู†ุงุช ุฅุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„ ู„ูƒู† ุจู†ุงุช ูŠู‡ูˆุฐุง ู„ู… ุชุญุชู…ู„ ูุฌูˆุฑูƒู…ุง

ุบูŠุฑ ุงู†ูƒ ุณูˆู ุชู‚ูˆู„: ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
ุชู†ุงู‚ู„ูˆุง ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ูู„ู…ุงุฐุง ุฅุฐู† ู„ูŠุณุช ู…ุฐูƒูˆุฑุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู„ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„

ูˆุงู„ุฅุฌุงุจุฉ ู‡ูŠ ุฃู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูŠุฎููˆู† ุนู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ู‚ุฏุฑ ุงู„ุฅู…ูƒุงู† ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ู†ูŠ ุชุญุชูˆูŠ
ุนู„ูŠ ูุถุงุฆุญ ุงู„ุดูŠูˆุฎ ุงู„ุญูƒุงู… ูˆุงู„ู‚ุถุงุก.
. ุจุนุถ
ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุต ูˆุฑุฏุช ููŠ
ุงู„ุฃุณูุงุฑ ุงู„ุฃุจูˆูƒุฑูŠูุง
ูƒู‚ุตุฉ ุนูŠุณูˆ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุดู‡ุฏ ู„ู‡ุง ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑุงู†ูŠูŠู†
(ุท ุท ุท ุท)
ุบูŠุฑ ุงู†ู†ุง ู„ุง ู†ุฌุฏู‡ุง ููŠ ุฃูŠ ู…ู† ุฃุณูุงุฑ
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
.
. ู„ู‚ุฏ ู‚ุงู„ ูƒุงุชุจ ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑุงู†ูŠูŠู† ูˆู‡ูˆ ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก
ูˆู…ุง ุนุงู†ูˆู‡
, ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุฑุฌู…ูˆุง
ู†ุดุฑูˆุง ุฌุฑุจูˆุง ู…ุงุชูˆุง ู‚ุชู„ุง ุจุงู„ุณูŠู
” 11/37

ูˆุฃู†ุง ุฃุณุฃู„, ุฅู„ูŠ ู…ู† ุชุดูŠุฑ
ูƒู„ู…ุฉ
ู†ุดุฑูˆุง ” (ู‚ุทุนูˆุง
ุจุงู„ู…ู†ุดุงุฑ)
(ูŠ ูŠ ูŠ ูŠ)

ู†ุญู† ู†ุนู„ู… ุฌูŠุฏุง ุฃู† ุงู„ุชู‚ู„ูŠุฏ ูŠุฎุจุฑู†ุง ุฅู† ุนูŠุณูˆ
ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ู‚ุทุน ุจุงู„ู…ู†ุดุงุฑ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุฐูƒูˆุฑ ุฃูŠุถุง ููŠ ุจุนุถ ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ุฃุจูˆูƒุฑูŠูุง ุงู„ุชูŠ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุญุชู…ู„ ุฃู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
ุญุฑููˆู‡ุง ุจุฅุถุงูุฉ ู†ุตูˆุต ูˆุงุถุญุฉ ููŠ ูƒูˆู†ู‡ุง ุบูŠุฑ ุตุญูŠุญุฉ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ูƒูŠ ุชุซุงุฑ ุงู„ุดูƒูˆูƒ ุญูˆู„ ู…ุตุฏุงู‚ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุณูุฑ
ูƒู„ูŠุง

ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฑุจู…ุง ุฃุญุฏ ู…ุง ุฃู…ุงู… ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุฌุฉ ุงู„ู‚ูˆูŠุฉ ูŠุณุชุนูŠู† ุจุงู„ุฑุฃูŠ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฆู„ ุงู† ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ
ุงู„ุนุจุฑุงู†ูŠูŠู† ู„ู… ูŠูƒุชุจู‡ุง ุจูˆู„ุณ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฑุฃูŠ ุณูˆู ุฃูู†ุฏู‡ ููŠ ูˆู‚ุช ุฃุญุฑ ูˆุฃุซุจุช ุงู† ุจูˆู„ุณ ู‡ูˆ ูƒุงุชุจู‡ุง
..
ุฃู…ุง ุงู„ุขู† ูุณูˆู ุฃู‚ุฏู… ู…ู† ุงู„ุฅู†ุฌูŠู„ ุดู‡ุงุฏุฉ ูŠุณูˆุน ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุฎ ุนู† ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ู…ุน ู‚ุตุฉ
ุฃุดุงุฑ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุง ู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ู„ู… ุชุฐูƒุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุฃูŠุถุง ุชุฎุต ูุถุงุฆุญ ุงู„ู‚ุถุงุก ุงู„ุธู„ู…ุฉ ููŠ ุฅุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„

ย 

ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ู…ุฎู„ุตู†ุง ู‡ูŠ

ูˆูŠู„ ู„ูƒู… ุงูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ูƒุชุจุฉ ูˆุงู„ูุฑูŠุณูŠูˆู† ุงู„ู…ุฑุงุคูˆู† ู„ุงู†ูƒู… ุชุจู†ูˆู† ู‚ุจูˆุฑ ุงู„ุงู†ุจูŠุงุก
ูˆุชุฒูŠู‘ู†ูˆู† ู…ุฏุงูู† ุงู„ุตุฏูŠู‚ูŠู†
, ูˆุชู‚ูˆู„ูˆู† ู„ูˆ
ูƒู†ุง ููŠ ุงูŠุงู… ุขุจุงุฆู†ุง ู„ู…ุง ุดุงุฑูƒู†ุงู‡ู… ููŠ ุฏู… ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก
, ูุงู†ุชู…
ุชุดู‡ุฏูˆู† ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู†ูุณูƒู… ุฅู†ูƒู… ุฃุจู†ุงุก ู‚ุชู„ุฉ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูุงู…ู„ุฃูˆุง ุงู†ุชู… ู…ูƒูŠุงู„ ุขุจุงุฆูƒู…
.
ุฃูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ุญูŠู‘ุงุช ุฃูˆู„ุงุฏ ุงู„ุฃูุงุนูŠ ูƒูŠู ุชู‡ุฑุจูˆู† ู…ู† ุฏูŠู†ูˆู†ุฉ ุฌู‡ู†ู….
ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ู‡ุง ุฅู†ุง ุฃุฑุณู„ ุฅู„ูŠูƒู… ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆุญูƒู…ุงุก ูˆูƒุชุจุฉ ูู…ู†ู‡ู… ุชู‚ุชู„ูˆู† ูˆุชุตู„ุจูˆู† ูˆู…ู†ู‡ู…
ุชุฌู„ุฏูˆู† ููŠ ู…ุฌุงู…ุนูƒู… ูˆุชุทุฑุฏูˆู† ู…ู† ู…ุฏูŠู†ุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุฏูŠู†ุฉ
. ู„ูƒูŠ
ูŠุฃุชูŠ ุนู„ูŠูƒู… ูƒู„ ุฏู… ุฒูƒูŠ ุณููƒ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ู…ู† ุฏู… ู‡ุงุจูŠู„ ุงู„ุตุฏู‘ูŠู‚ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฏู… ุฒูƒุฑูŠุง ุจู† ุจุฑุฎูŠุง ุงู„ุฐูŠ
ู‚ุชู„ุชู…ูˆู‡ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู‡ูŠูƒู„ ูˆุงู„ู…ุฐุจุญ
: ุงู„ุญู‚ ุฃู‚ูˆู„
ู„ูƒู… ุฅู† ู‡ุฐุง ูƒู„ู‡ ูŠุฃุชูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฌูŠู„ ูŠุง ุฃูˆุฑุดู„ูŠู… ูŠุง ุฃูˆุฑุดู„ูŠู… ูŠุง ู‚ุงุชู„ุฉ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆุฑุงุฌู…ุฉ
ุงู„ู…ุฑุณู„ูŠู† ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุง ูƒู… ู…ุฑุฉ ุฃุฑุฏุช ุฃู† ุงุฌู…ุน ุฃูˆู„ุงุฏูƒ ูƒู…ุง ุชุฌู…ุน ุงู„ุฏุฌุงุฌุฉ ุฃูุฑุงุฎู‡ุง ุชุญุช ุฌู†ุงุญูŠู‡ุง ูˆู„ู…
ุชุฑูŠุฏูˆุง
. ู‡ูˆุฐุง ุจูŠุชูƒู… ูŠุชุฑูƒ ู„ูƒู… ุฎุฑุงุจุง

ย 

ูู„ู†ู†ุธุฑ ุงู„ุขู†, ุฃู„ุณู†ุง ููŠ
ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุญุงู„ุฉ ู…ู„ุฒู…ูŠู† ุฃู† ู†ุตู„ ุฅู„ูŠ ุงุณุชู†ุชุงุฌ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฅู† ุงู„ู…ุฎู„ุต ูŠุนุทูŠู†ุง ู‚ุตุฉ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠุฉ ุนู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุจูŠู†ู…ุง
ู„ุง ู†ุฌุฏ ุฃูŠ ู†ุต ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ูŠุคูƒุฏ ู‚ูˆู„ ูŠุณูˆุน
, ูุฅู†
ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุจู†ูˆู† ู‚ุจูˆุฑ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆูŠุฒูŠู†ูˆู† ู…ุฏุงูู† ุงู„ุตุฏูŠู‚ูŠู† ูˆูŠุฏูŠู†ูˆู† ุฌุฑุงุฆู… ุขุจุงุฆู‡ู… ูŠู‚ูˆู„ูˆู† ู„ูˆ
ูƒู†ุง ููŠ ุฃูŠุงู… ุขุจุงุฆู†ุง ู„ู…ุง ุดุงุฑูƒู†ุงู‡ู… ููŠ ุฏู… ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก
[6]


ูู‡ู„ ู…ู† ุฃุญุฏ ูŠุฎุจุฑู†ูŠ, ุฏู… ุฃูŠ ู†ุจูŠ
ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆุฃูŠู† ุฐูƒุฑ ู‡ุฐุง ุนู† ุนูŠุณูˆ ุฃูˆ ุงุฑู…ูŠุง ุฃูˆ ุฃูŠ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ุงู„ุฅุซู†ูŠ ุนุดุฑ ุฃูˆ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„
,
ูˆุญุชู‰ ุฒูƒุฑูŠุง ุจู† ุจุฑุฎูŠุง ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุชู„ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู‡ูŠูƒู„ ูˆุงู„ู…ุฐุจุญ ู„ู… ู†ุนุฑู ุนู†ู‡ ุฅู„ุง ู…ู†
ูŠุณูˆุน ูˆู„ูˆู„ุง ูŠุณูˆุน ู„ู…ุง ุนุฑูู†ุง ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ูุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ู„ู… ุชุฐูƒุฑ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ุฃุจุฏุง

ย 

ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุฐู„ูƒ, ุฃุนุชู‚ุฏ ุฃู†ู‡
ู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุงูุชุฑุงุถ ุขุฎุฑ ุณูˆูŠ ุฃู† ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุงุก ูˆุงู„ู‚ุถุงุฉ ูˆุฃูŠุถุง ุงู„ุดูŠูˆุฎ ุฃุฎููˆุง ุนู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ู†ูŠ
ุชุณูŠุก ุฅู„ูŠู‡ู….
. ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ู„ุง ู†ุฑูŠ ุบุฑุงุจุฉ ููŠ ูƒูˆู† ู‚ุตุฉ ุงู„ุดูŠุฎุงู† ุงู„ูุงุฌุฑุงู†
ูˆุดุฑู‡ู…ุง ุถุฏ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ ู‚ุตุฉ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠุฉ ู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ุฃุฎููŠุช ูˆู…ุณุญุช ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ
ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ุนู„ูŠ ูŠุฏ ุดูŠูˆุฎ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
(ูƒ ูƒ ูƒ ูƒ)

ูˆููŠ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุฑุณู„ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุงุณุชูุงู†ูˆุณ ุงูŠ
ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ู„ู… ูŠุถุทู‡ุฏู‡ ุขุจุงุคูƒู… ูˆู‚ุฏ ู‚ุชู„ูˆุง ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุธู‡ุฑูˆุง ู‚ุจู„ ู…ุฌูŠ ุตุงุญุจ ุงู„ุนุฏู„ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุบุฏุฑุชู… ุจู‡
ูˆู‚ุชู„ุชู…ูˆู‡
” [7]

ุงู† ูƒู„ ู…ู† ูŠุคู…ู† ุจู‚ุงู†ูˆู†ูŠุฉ ุณูุฑ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุฑุณู„ ูŠู‚ุฑ ุจุตุฏู‚ ูƒู„ุงู… ุงุณุชูุงู†ูˆุณ ูˆู„ูƒู†
ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุณุชุญูŠู„ ุฃู† ู†ุซุจุช ุชู‡ู… ุงุถุทู‡ุงุฏ ูˆู‚ุชู„ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ู…ู† ุงู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ู„ู…ู† ู„ุง ูŠุคู…ู† ุจูŠุณูˆุน

ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุจูˆู„ุณ ููŠ ุฑุณุงู„ุชู‡ ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ูŠ ุฅู„ูŠ ุชุณุงู„ูˆู†ูƒูŠ
ูุงู†ูƒู… ุฃูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ุฅุฎูˆุฉ ุตุฑุชู… ู…ุชู…ุซู„ูŠู† ุจูƒู†ุงุฆุณ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠุฉ ููŠ
ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ูŠุณูˆุน ู„ุฃู†ูƒู… ุชุฃู„ู…ุชู… ุงู†ุชู… ุฃูŠุถุง ู…ู† ุฃู‡ู„ ุนุดูŠุฑุชูƒู… ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุขู„ุงู… ุนูŠู†ู‡ุง ูƒู…ุง ู‡ู… ุฃูŠุถุง ู…ู†
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ู‚ุชู„ูˆุง ุงู„ุฑุจ ูŠุณูˆุน ูˆุฃู†ุจูŠุงุกู‡ู… ูˆุงุถุทู‡ุฏูˆู†ุง ู†ุญู† ูˆู‡ู… ุบูŠุฑ ู…ุฑุถูŠู† ู„ู„ู‘ู‡ ูˆุฃุถุฏุงุฏ ู„ุฌู…ูŠุน
ุงู„ู†ุงุณ
” [8]

ุฃุนุชู‚ุฏ ุงู† ู…ุง ู‚ู„ุชู‡ ูƒุงููŠ ู„ุฃู† ูŠุจุฑู‡ู† ุนู„ูŠ ุตุญุฉ ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ ูˆุฃู† ุงู„ู‡ุฌูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ุงุณูŠ
ุนู„ูŠ ุณูˆุณู†ุฉ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุงู„ุดูŠุฎุงู† ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ู‚ุฏ ูƒุชุจุช ุจูˆุงุณุทุฉ ุฑูˆุญ ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃุฒุงู„ู‡ุง ู‚ุถุงุฉ ุณุฏูˆู…
[9] ูƒู…ุง
ูŠุณู…ูŠู‡ู… ุงู„ุฑูˆุญ

ย 

ุงู„ุฑุฏ

ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุจุฐู„ 28 ุณู†ู‡ ู…ู† ุนู…ุฑู‡ ููŠ ุฏุฑุงุณุฉ ุงู„ุงู†ุฌูŠู„ ูˆุงู„ูุฑู‚
ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู… ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ู„ุงุชูŠู†ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‚ุงู… ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู†ูุณู‡ู… ูˆุจูŠู† ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุงุตู„ูŠ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ
ุนู† ู…ุงุฐุง ูŠุชูƒู„ู…ุŸ

ู‡ูˆ ูŠุฑุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ุฎุทุงุจ ุงุฑุณู„ู‡ ู„ู‡ ุงูุฑูŠูƒุงู†ูˆุณ ุนู† ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุณูˆุณู†ู‡ (ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ
ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ ุชุชู…ุฉ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„) ู„ุงู† ุงูุฑูŠูƒุงู†ูˆุณ ุดูƒ ููŠ ุตุญุฉ ุงู„ู‚ุตู‡ ูˆุงุนุชู‚ุฏ ุงู†ู‡ุง ูƒุชุจุช ุญุฏูŠุซุง ุจู„ุบู‡ ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ

ููŠุฑุฏ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุจุงุฏู„ู‡ ูˆุงุถุญู‡ ูƒุชุงุจูŠู‡ ูˆุงูŠุถุง ู…ู† ุงู‚ูˆุงู„ ุงู„ุดูŠูˆุฎ
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุงู†ูุณู‡ู… ุนู† ู„ูŠูˆุถุญ ุงู†ู‡ุง ุฑุณุงู„ู‡ ู…ูƒุชูˆุจู‡ ุจุงู„ูˆุญูŠ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ูˆุจุชุญู„ูŠู„ ู„ุบูˆูŠ ุงูŠุถุง

ูˆููŠ ุณูŠุงู‚ ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุนุชุงุจ ู„ู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ุงุฎูุงุก ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุณูุงุฑ
ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ ูˆุญูŠ ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ุชุฏูŠู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ุงุฎุทุงุคู‡ู… ูˆุชุซุจุช ุงู†ู‡ู… ู‚ุชู„ุฉ ุงู„ุงู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆุดูŠูˆุฎู‡ู…
ุงูŠุถุง ุญุฑููˆุง ุงู„ู‚ุถุงุก

ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ู‚ุจู„ ุงู† ูŠูˆุถุญ ุฐู„ูƒ ูˆุถุญ ููŠ ูƒู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ู†ุณุฎ ู…ุฎุชู„ูู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู…
ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡ (ุงู„ุชูŠ ุตู†ุนู‡ุง ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู†ูุณู‡ู… ูˆุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ุบูŠุฑูˆุง ููŠู‡ุง) ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุจู‡ุง ุงุนุฏุงุฏ ูˆุงุญูŠุงู†ุง ุตู„ูˆุงุช
ุงุถุงูู‡ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุงุตู„ูŠ ูˆุงูŠุถุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุนุฏุงุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุบูŠุฑ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู…
ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุงูŠุถุง ุนุงุชุจ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ูุนู„ ุฐู„ูƒ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ุงุช ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุงู„ุงุตู„ (ุงูŠ ุงู† ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ
ู„ู… ูŠู„ุญู‚ู‡ ุงูŠ ุชุบูŠูŠุฑ)

ูˆุดุฑุญุง ู„ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ู‚ุทู‡ ุงูƒุฏ ุงู† ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุตุญูŠุญ (ูˆุณุงุดุฑุญ ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡
ุงูˆุฑุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุชูุตูŠู„ูŠุง ุนู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุงู…ุฑ) ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ู„ุงูŠุฑูุถ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡ ุงู„ู‡ุงู…ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ู‚ู„ุช ุงู…ูˆุฑ
ุชุงุฑูŠุฎูŠู‡ ู‡ุงู…ู‡ ุฌุฏุง ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ูŠุทู„ุจ ุจู…ุนุฑูุฉ ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุฌูŠุฏุง ูˆุงูŠุถุง ู…ู‚ุงุฑู†ุชู‡ุง ุจุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ

ูˆุงูŠุถุง ูŠูˆุถุญ ุงู†ู‡ ุจุฐู„ ู…ุฌู‡ูˆุฏ ูƒุจูŠุฑ ู„ู…ู‚ุงุฑู†ุฉ ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู… ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡ ู…ุนุง ูˆูˆุฌุฏู‡ุง
ู…ุฎุชู„ูู‡ ู…ุนุง ูˆุงูŠุถุง ู…ุฎุชู„ูู‡ ู…ุน ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุงู„ุงุตู„ูŠ ูˆุทู„ุจ ุงู† ูŠุนุฑู ุงู„ุฏุงุฑุณูŠู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูุฑูˆู‚ ู„ูŠุณุชุทูŠุนูˆุง
ุงู† ูŠู†ุงู‚ุดูˆุง ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุจุงู„ุงุณุชุดู‡ุงุฏ ุจุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠู‡ ู„ูƒูŠ ู„ุงูŠุณุฎุฑ ู…ู†ู‡ู… ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู„ูˆ ุงุณุชุดู‡ุฏูˆุง
ุจุนุฏุฏ ู…ุถุงู ู„ุงุงุตู„ ู„ู‡ ูˆุงูŠุถุง ู„ูŠุนุฑููˆุง ุงู„ุงุนุฏุงุช ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู… ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง
ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ู„ูŠุณุชุดู‡ุฏูˆุง ุจู‡ุง

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ูู‡ูˆ ูŠุนุชุฑู ุจุงู† ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู… ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ ู…ุซู„ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงูƒูŠู„ุง ุจู‡ุง ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช
ูˆูŠุคูƒุฏ ุงู† ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุณู„ูŠู… ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ูŠุนุงุชุจ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ุงุฎูุงุก ุงุฌุฒุงุก ู…ู‡ู…ู‡ ู…ุซู„ ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ู‡
ุงูˆ ุชุชู…ุฉ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ู…ูˆุญูŠ ุจู‡ุง ูˆู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠู‡ ู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ
ู„ู‡ุง ุงุฎููˆู‡

ูˆู‚ุฏ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุจุนุถ ุงู† ูƒุงู† ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ุจู‡ุง ุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช ููƒูŠู ุชุณู…ุญ ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ูƒู†ูŠุณู‡ุŸ

ุงู„ุฑุฏ ุจุณูŠุท ุฌุฏุง ุจู…ุนุฑูุฉ ุงู†ูˆุงุน ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู…

ุงู†ูˆุงุน
ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ุงุช ูƒุซูŠุฑู‡ ู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ุชู†ู‚ุณู… ุจุตูˆุฑู‡ ุนุงู…ู‡ ุงู„ูŠ ุซู„ุงุซ ุงู‚ุณุงู…

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ุงูˆู„ุง
ู„ูุธูŠู‡

ุงูŠ
ุงู† ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู… ูŠู„ุชุฒู… ุจุงู„ุญุฑู ุงูŠ ุงู„ู„ูุธ ุฏูˆู† ุงู„ุชู‚ูŠุฏ ุจุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ุงู„ูˆุงุถุญ ูˆูŠู†ุชุฌ ุนู†ู‡ุง ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ุฏู‚ูŠู‚ู‡
ู„ูุธูŠุง ูˆู„ูƒู† ุบูŠุฑ ูˆุงุถุญู‡ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุงุฎุชู„ุงู ุชุตุฑูŠู ุงู„ุงูุนุงู„ ูˆุจุนุถ ู…ุนุงู†ูŠ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุจูŠู† ู„ุบู‡
ูˆุงุฎุฑูŠ

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ุซุงู†ูŠุง
ู…ุชุญุฑุฑุฉ

ุงูŠ
ุงู† ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู… ูŠู‡ุชู… ุจุดุฑุญ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ูˆู„ุงูŠู„ุชุฒู… ุจุงู„ู„ูุธ ูู‚ุฏ ูŠุถูŠู ูƒู„ู…ู‡ ุงูˆุงุซู†ูŠู† ุงูˆ ุงูƒุซุฑ ู„ุดุฑุญ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ
ูˆู‚ุฏ ูŠุดูŠุฑ ุจุฌู…ู„ู‡ ู…ู‚ุชุจุณู‡ ู…ู† ูุตู„ ุงุฎุฑ ู„ุชูˆุถูŠุญ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ.
ูˆูŠู†ุชุฌ ุนู† ู‡ุฐุง
ุงู„ู†ูˆุน ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ูˆุงุถุญุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ูุงุธู‡ุง ุงุญูŠุงู†ุง ู„ุงุชุชุทุงุจู‚ ู…ุน ุงู„ุงู„ูุงุธ ุงู„ุงุตู„ูŠู‡ ุงูˆ ุนุฏุฏ
ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช

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ุซุงู„ุซุง
ุงู„ุฏูŠู†ุงู…ูŠูƒูŠุฉ

ุงู„ุชูŠ
ูŠุจุฐู„ ููŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู… ู…ุฌู‡ูˆุฏุง ูƒุจูŠุฑุง ู„ูŠุดุฑุญ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ุจุงู‚ุตูŠ ู‚ุฏุฑ ู…ุน ุงู„ุงู„ุชุฒุงู… ุจู†ูุณ ุงู„ู„ูุธ ุจุฏูˆู†
ุงุถุงูุงุช ุชูˆุถูŠุญูŠุฉ ูˆูŠู†ุชุฌ ุนู†ู‡ุง ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ู…ู‚ุงุฑุจู‡ ู„ู„ูุธู‡ ูˆูˆุงุถุญุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ุงู„ูŠ ุญุฏ ู…ุง ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ุชุณุชุบุฑู‚ุง
ุฒู…ุงู†ุง ุงุทูˆู„ ุจูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณุงุจู‚ุชูŠู†

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ู„ุงูŠูˆุฌุฏ ู†ูˆุน ู…ู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงู†ูˆุงุน ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซ ุฎุทุฃ ุจู„ ูƒู„ู‡ู… ุชุฑุงุฌู… ุตุญูŠุญู‡ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุนู„ูŠ
ุงู„ู‚ุงุฑุฆ ุงู„ู…ุซู‚ู ุงู† ูŠูู‡ู… ู†ูˆุน ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ู„ูƒูŠ ู„ุงูŠุชุณุฑุน ูˆูŠู‚ูุฒ ุงู„ูŠ ุงุชู‡ุงู…ุงุช ุจุฏูˆู† ูู‡ู…

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ู†ูˆุน ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠู‡

ู‡ูŠ ุฎู„ูŠุท ุจูŠู† ุงู„ูƒู„ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ููŠ ุงุบู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุญูˆุงู„ ุชู…ูŠู„ ุงู„ูŠ ุงู„ู†ูˆุน ุงู„ู…ุชุญุฑุฑ ู„ูŠุดุฑุญ
ุงู„ููƒุฑ ูˆุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุจุณุจุจ ุถูŠู‚ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช
285 ู‚ุจู„
ุงู„ู…ูŠู„ุงุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ูŠุฏ ุณุจุนูŠู† ุดูŠุฎ ููŠ ุณุจุนูŠู† ูŠูˆู… ูู‚ุท
ูˆุงู„ุงู‡ุชู…ุงู…
ุจุชูˆุตูŠู„ ุงู„ู…ูู‡ูˆู…
(ูˆู„ู… ูŠุดูƒ ุงุญุฏู‡ู… ูˆู‚ุชู‡ุง ุงู†ู‡ ุณุงูŠุชูŠ
ุงุดุฎุงุต ุญุฑููŠูˆู† ู„ุงูŠู‡ุชู…ูˆู† ุจุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุดุบู„ู‡ู… ุงู„ุดุงุบู„ ุงู„ุชุดูƒูŠูƒ ูู‚ุท ู„ุงุบุฑุงุถ ู…ุนุฑูˆูู‡)

ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ูŠุทู„ุจ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุฑุบู… ู…ุนุฑูุชู‡ ุจุงู„ุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช ุงู† ูŠุฏุฑุณ ุงู„ุงุซู†ูŠู†
ู„ุงู† ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุงุตู„ูŠ ุงู„ุณู„ูŠู… ูˆุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ุงุช ุชู‚ุฏู… ู…ูุงู‡ูŠู… ู‡ุงู…ู‡
ุฌุฏุง ู„ุงูŠุฌุจ ุงุบูุงู„ู‡ุง

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ุจุนุถ ู…ู† ูƒู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒ ูŠุซุจุช ุงู† ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุณู„ูŠู…

I marked with an asterisk those passages in our copies which are not
found in the Hebrew. What needs there to speak of Exodus, where there is such diversity
in what is said about the tabernacle and its court, and the ark, and the garments of the high priest and the priests,
that sometimes the meaning even does not seem to be akin? And, forsooth, when
we notice such things, we are forthwith to reject as spurious the copies in use
in our Churches, and enjoin the brotherhood to put away the sacred books current
among them, and to coax the Jews, and persuade them to give us copies which shall
be untampered with, and free from forgery

ย 

ุงู†ุง ุนู„ู…ุช ุจู†ุฌู…ู‡ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุนุฏุงุฏ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎู†ุง (ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡)
ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ. ูˆุงู„ู…ุญุชุงุฌ
ุงู† ุงุชูƒู„ู… ุนู†ู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุฎุฑูˆุฌ
, ุญูŠุซ ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช
ููŠ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ูŠู„ ุนู† ุฎูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ุงุฌุชู…ุงุน ูˆุงู„ู…ุญูƒู…ู‡ ูˆุงู„ุชุงุจูˆุช ูˆู…ู„ุงุจุณ ุฑุฆูŠุณ ุงู„ูƒู‡ู†ุฉ ูˆุงู„ูƒู‡ู†ุฉ
, ู…ุนู†ูŠ
ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต
(ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ)
ู„ุงูŠุจุฏูˆ ู…ุชู†ุงุณู‚ุŸ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู†ู„ุงุญุธ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุดูŠุงุก ูŠุฌุจ ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุงู† ู†ุฑูุถ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ
ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ุดุฑุนูŠู‡ ุงู„ู…ุณุชุฎุฏู…ู‡ ููŠ ูƒู†ุงุฆุณู†ุง
(ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ
ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ)
ูˆู†ุณุชู…ุชุน ุจู†ุณุฎ
ุงุฎูˆุชู†ุง ู„ูŠุนุทูˆู†ุง ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณู‡ ุงู„ูŠ ู‡ูŠ ุญุงู„ูŠุง ุจูŠู† ุงูŠุฏูŠู‡ู… ูˆู…ุฎุทูˆุทุงุช ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
(ูŠุชูƒู„ู…
ุนู† ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ)
ูˆู†ู‚ู†ุนู‡ู… ู„ูŠุนุทูˆู†ุง
ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ุง ุชุญุชูˆูŠ ุนู„ูŠ ุชุบูŠูŠุฑ ูˆุฎุงู„ูŠู‡ ู…ู† ูƒู„ ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑ

ย 

ุงุนุชู‚ุฏ ูˆุงุถุญ ู…ู† ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุงู†ู‡ ูŠุคูƒุฏ ุงู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุณูˆุฑูŠุชูƒ
ุงู„ุชูŠ ุญุงูุธ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุณู„ูŠู…ู‡ ูˆู…ุญููˆุธู‡ ุจุฏูˆู† ุงูŠ ุชุบูŠูŠุฑ ูˆูŠู…ุชู„ูƒูˆุง ุงูŠุถุง ู…ุฎุทูˆุทุงุชู‡ุง

ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ูŠุนู„ู… ุงู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡ ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ู…ุซู„ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠู‡ ุจู‡ุง ุงุฎุทุงุก ูƒุซูŠุฑู‡
(ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุดุฆ ู…ุนุฑูˆู) ูˆุงูŠุถุง ู†ุณุฎู‡ ุงูƒูŠู„ุง ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡ ุจู‡ุง ุงุฎุทุฃ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ุงูƒุซุฑ ุฏู‚ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ

ย 

ุฌุฒุก
ุงุฎุฑ

5. In all these cases consider whether it would not be well to remember
the words, โ€œThou shalt not remove the ancient landmarks which thy fathers have set.โ€
3033 Prov. xxii. 28. Nor do I say this because I shun the labour
of investigating the Jewish Scriptures, and comparing them with ours, and noticing
their various readings. This, if it be not arrogant to say it, I have already to
a great extent done to the best of my ability, labouring hard to get at the meaning
in all the editions and various readings;
while I paid particular attention
to the interpretation of the Seventy, lest I might to be found to accredit any forgery
to the Churches which are under heaven,

ย 

ููŠ ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญู„ุงุช ู„ุงูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ู„ุงู†ุชุฐูƒุฑ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ู„ุงุชู†ู‚ู„ ุงู„ุชุฎู… ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ุงู„ุฐูŠ
ูˆุถุนู‡ ุงุจุงุคูƒ.
ูˆู„ุง ุงู†ุง ุงู‚ูˆู„
ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุงุชุฌู†ุจ ุงู„ุชุญู‚ูŠู‚ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ูˆู…ู‚ุงุฑู†ุชู‡ู… ุจู†ุณุฎู†ุง
(ู†ุณุฎู†ุง
ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ)
ูˆู…ู„ุงุญุธุฉ ุงุฎุชู„ุงู
ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช.
ูˆุงุฑุฌูˆุง ุงู† ู„ุงุงูƒูˆู†
ู…ุชูƒุจุฑ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุงู‚ูˆู„ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู†ูŠ ู‚ุฏ ุงู„ูŠ ุญุฏ ูƒุจูŠุฑ ูุนู„ุช ุนู„ูŠ ู‚ุฏุฑ ุงุณุชุทุงุนุชูŠ ุจุงุฐู„ุง ู…ุฌู‡ูˆุฏ ูƒุจูŠุฑ ู„ุงุญุตู„
ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ูŠ ููŠ ูƒู„ ุงู„ุทุจุนุงุช ูˆุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ุงู„ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉ.
ูˆูƒู†ุช
ู…ุฑูƒุฒุง ููŠ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ู„ูƒูŠ ู„ุง ุงูˆุฌุฏ ู…ู‚ุฑุง ุจุงูŠ ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑ ู„ู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ ุชุญุช ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก

ย 

ุงูŠ ุงู† ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ู„ุงูŠุนุชุฑุถ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆู„ุง ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุงู†ู‡ุง ู…ุญุฑูู‡
ูˆูŠุทุงู„ุจ ุจุงู† ู†ูู‡ู… ู…ุนุงู†ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู‡ุงู…ู‡ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงูŠุถุง ูŠุทุงู„ุจ ุจุงู† ู†ุนุฑู ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุจู…ู‚ุงุฑู†ุชู‡ู… ู…ุนุง

ูˆุงูŠุถุง

And I make it my endeavour not to be ignorant of their various readings,
lest in my controversies with the Jews I should quote to them what is not found
in their copies, and that I may make some use of what is found there, even although
it should not be in our Scriptures. For if we are so prepared for them in our discussions,
they will not, as is their manner, scornfully laugh at Gentile believers for their
ignorance of the true reading as they have them
.

ย 

ูˆุงู†ุง
ุงุฌุชู‡ุฏ ู„ูƒูŠ ู„ุงุงูƒูˆู† ุฌุงู‡ู„ุง ุจุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ูƒูŠ ุงุซู†ุงุก ู…ู†ุงู‚ุดุชูŠ ู…ุน ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู„ุง ุงุธู‡ุฑ ู„ู‡ู…
ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุนุฏุงุฏ ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎู‡ู… ูˆุงูŠุถุง ุงุฌุฏ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ููŠ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชูˆุฌุฏ ุนู†ุฏู‡ู… ุญุชูŠ
ู„ูˆ ู„ู… ุชูƒู† ููŠ ู†ุณุฎู†ุง.
ู„ุงู†ู†ุง ู„ูˆ ู…ุณุชุนุฏูŠู† ุฌุฏุง ููŠ
ู†ู‚ุงุดุงุชู†ุง
, ู„ู† ูŠุณุฎุฑูˆุง ูƒุนุงุฏุชู‡ู…
ู…ู† ุฌู‡ู„ ุงู„ุงู…ู…ูŠูŠู† ุจุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุกู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ ู…ุนู‡ู…

ย 

ุงูŠ ุงู† ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูŠูˆุถุญ ุงู† ุงู„ุงุตู„ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ูˆูŠุทู„ุจ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงู…ู…ูŠู†
ุงู† ูŠุนุฑููˆุง ุงู„ูุฑูˆู‚ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ูˆูŠูƒูˆู†ูˆุง ู…ุณุชุนุฏูŠู† ููŠ ู†ู‚ุงุดู‡ู… ู…ุน ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู„ูŠุชุฌู†ุจูˆุง
ุณุฎุฑูŠุช ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู…ู†ู‡ู… ุจุณุจุจ ุฌู‡ู„ ุงู„ุงู…ู…ูŠูŠู† ุจุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ

ูˆุงูŠุถุง

The answer is, that they hid from the knowledge of the people
as many of the passages which contained any scandal against the elders, rulers,
and judges, as they could, some of which have been preserved in uncanonical writings
(Apocrypha)
.

ุงู„ุงุฌุงุจู‡
ุงู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูŠุฎููˆู† ุนู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูู‡ ุจุงูŠ ุนุฏุฏ ุชุญุชูˆูŠ ุนู„ูŠ ูุถุญ ู„ู„ุดูŠูˆุฎ ูˆุงู„ู‚ุงุฏู‡ ูˆุงู„ุญูƒุงู… ุจู‚ุฏุฑ
ุงุณุชุทุงุนุชู‡ู… ุง
, ุจุนุถ ู…ู†ู‡ุง (ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูุถุงุฆุญ) ู…ุญููˆุธู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุจ
ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู‚ุงู†ูˆู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุงุจูƒุฑูŠููŠุฉ

ุงูŠ ุงู† ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูŠุถุน ูุฑู‚ ูƒุจูŠุฑ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุงุณูุงุฑ ุงู„ู‚ุงู†ูˆู†ูŠุฉ ู„ู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
ูˆู‡ูŠ ุณู„ูŠู…ู‡ ูˆุจูŠู† ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู‚ุงู†ูˆู†ูŠู‡ ููŠ ุฑุงูŠ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูˆูŠุญุงูˆู„ูˆู† ุงุฎูุงุฆู‡ุง ู„ุงู† ุจู‡ุง ุงุฏุงู†ู‡
ู„ู„ุดูŠูˆุฎ ูˆุงู„ุญูƒุงู… ูˆุงู„ู‚ุถุงู‡ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ู‡

ูˆู„ุงูŠุฎููŠ
ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุงู†ู‡ ุชูƒู„ู… ุจุงุณุชูุงุถู‡ ูƒู…ุง ูŠุชุถุญ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุงู†ุฌู„ูŠุฒูŠ ูˆุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ุงู„ุนุฑุจูŠ ุนู† ุตุฏู‚ ูˆุงุตุงู„ุฉ
ูˆุงู‡ู…ูŠุฉ ู‚ุตุฉ ุณูˆุณู†ู‡ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุณูุงุฑ ุงู„ู‚ุงู†ูˆู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุซุงู†ูŠุฉ

ย 

ุงุฎุทุงุก ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‚ุฏู…ุช ููƒุฑ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุฎุทุง

ูˆู‚ุฏ ูŠูƒูˆู† ูุนู„ุง ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุฎุทุงุก ุนู† ุบูŠุฑ ุนู…ุฏ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงุฎูุงุก ุชุฑุฌู…ุฉ ุงุฌุฒุงุก ู…ู‡ู…ู‡
ูˆุชุบูŠูŠุฑ ู…ุนู†ูŠ ุงุฌุฒุงุก ุงุฎุฑูŠ ู…ู‡ู…ู‡ ู‚ู„ ูŠู‚ู„ู„ ู…ู† ุงุญุชู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ ุญุณู† ุงู„ู†ูŠุฉ ููŠ ุงุฎุทุงุคู‡

ูˆู„ูƒู†ูŠ ุงูˆุถุญ ุงู†ูŠ ู„ุงุงุชูƒู„ู… ุนู† ุงุฎุทุงุก ู„ุบูˆูŠู‡ ุงูˆ ุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงุฎุทุงุก ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ูุงู†ุง
ู„ุงุงุญูƒู… ุนู„ูŠ ุงุญุฏ ูˆุงุญุชุฑู… ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒ ููŠ ุงุณู„ูˆุจู‡ ูˆู„ูƒู†ูŠ ูู‚ุท ุงุฑูƒุฒ ุนู„ูŠ ุงุฎุทุงุก ุงุซุฑุช ููŠ ู…ุนู†ูŠ ูƒู„ุงู…
ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ

ย 

ุงู…ุซู„ุฉ

ุฃ
ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ู…ุญุฒูˆูุฉ

when yet a young man in the affair of Susanna,

ูˆุงู‡ู…ูŠุชู‡ุง
ู„ุงู†ู‡ ูŠูˆุถุญ ุงู† ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ุฏุงูุน ุนู† ุณูˆุณู†ุง

ย 

ุจ
ู…ุญุฒูˆูุฉ

and saw
them that they were alive

ูˆุงู‡ู…ูŠุชู‡
ุงู†ู‡ ูŠูˆุถุญ ุงู† ุงู„ูุชูŠู‡ ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ุงุญูŠุงุก ุงูŠ ุงู†ู‡ุง ู‚ุตู‡ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠุฉ

ย 

ุฌ
ุฌุฒุก ุงุถุงูู‡ ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู… ุบูŠุฑ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ููŠ ููŠ ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ

ุฌ ุฃู„ู… ู†ู„ู‚ูŠ ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ุฑุฌุงู„ ู…ูˆุซู‚ูŠู† ููŠ ูˆุณุท ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ.ูุฃุฌุงุจูˆุง ูˆู‚ุงู„ูˆุง ู„ู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุตุญูŠุญ ุฃูŠู‡ุง
ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ
. ุฃุฌุงุจ ูˆู‚ุงู„
ู‡ุง ุงู†ุง ู†ุงุธุฑ ุฃุฑุจุนุฉ ุฑุฌุงู„ ู…ุญู„ูˆู„ูŠู† ูŠุชู…ุดูˆู† ููŠ ูˆุณุท ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ ูˆู…ุง ุจู‡ู… ุถุฑุฑ ูˆู…ู†ุธุฑ ุงู„ุฑุงุจุน ุดุจูŠู‡
ุจุงุจู† ุงู„ุขู„ู‡ุฉ

ย 

(ุฌ ุฌ ุฌ ุฌ)

ูˆู„ุง
ุงุนุฑู ู„ู…ุงุฐุง

ย 

ุฏ ุฏุฏ ุฏ ุฏ
ู…ุญุฒูˆูุฉ

as
the one which has been most successful

ูˆูŠูˆุถุญ
ุงู† ุชุฑุฌู…ุฉ ุงูƒู„ุง ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฐูƒุฑุช ุงู„ู‚ุตู‡ ู‡ูŠ ุงูุถู„ ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡ ู„ู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ

ูุงุฎูุงุก
ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฌุฒุก ู…ู† ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูŠูˆู‡ู… ุงู„ู‚ุงุฑุฆ ุงู† ูƒู„ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠู‡ ู…ุชุณุงูˆูŠู‡ ููŠ
ุงู„ุฎุทุง ููˆุฌูˆุฏ ู‚ุตู‡ ุณูˆุณู†ู‡ ููŠ ุชุฑุฌู…ุฉ ุงูƒูŠู„ุง ู„ูŠุณ ุฐูˆ ุงู‡ู…ูŠู‡ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูŠุคูƒุฏ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงู†ู‡ุง ุงุฏู‚
ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ ููˆุฌูˆุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุตู‡ ุจู‡ุง ูŠุซุจุช ุงุตุงู„ุชู‡ุง

ย 

ู‡

are not found in the Hebrew, and there is no small dispute among them about
this
;

ุฌุฒุก
ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ูˆุฑุงูŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู†ู‡ ุญุณู†

ู„ุงู†
ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ู„ูˆุญุฏู‡ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู‚ุงู„ ุญุณู† ููŠ ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ ูƒู„ ูŠูˆู… ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุจุนุฏ ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ูู‚ุท

ูˆุชูˆุถุน
ุจุนุฏู‡ุง ู…ุนู†ูŠ ุงู† ู‡ุฐุง ู„ูŠุณ ู„ู‡ ุงู‡ู…ูŠุฉ ูˆูŠู…ุซู„ ุฎู„ุงู ุจุณูŠุท ุจูŠู†ู‡ู…
(ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ูˆุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ)

ย 

ูˆ

and the
ark

ูˆู„ูŠุณ
ู„ู‡ ุงู‡ู…ูŠุฉ ูƒุจูŠุฑูŠ

ย 

ุญ
ู…ุญุฒูˆูุฉ

)โ€œyou
can adduce a passage in any Scripture where the schinos is mentioned, or the prinos,
you will find there the words you seek, together with the words which have the same
sound;

ู…ู…ูƒู†
ุงู† ุชู‚ุฏู… ุนุฏุฏ ููŠ ุงูŠ ู†ุต ุญูŠู† ุงู† ุดุฌุฑุฉ ุดูŠู†ูˆุณ ุฐูƒุฑุช ุงูˆ ุดุฌุฑุฉ ุจุฑูŠู†ูˆุณ
, ุณุชุฌุฏ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุจุญุซ ุนู†ู‡ุง ู…ุน ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ู‡ุง ู†ูุณ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุน

ูˆูŠู‚ุตุฏ
ุจู‡ุง ุดุฆ ู‡ุงู… ุฌุฏุง ูˆู‡ูˆ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ู…ู† ุนุจุฑูŠ ู„ู„ุบู‡ ุงุฎุฑูŠ ู…ู…ูƒู† ุงุช ุชุฏุฎู„ ูƒู„ู…ู‡ ู„ู‡ุง ู†ูุณ ุตูˆุช ุงุณู…
ุงู„ุดุฌุฑู‡ ูˆู„ุงูŠูƒูˆู† ู‡ุฐุง ุฎุทุง
(ู‚ุงุนุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ุนู†ุฏ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ) ุทุงู„ู…ุง ู„ู… ุชุฌุฏ
ู„ู‡ุง ุงุตู„ ููŠ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ

ย 

ุท
ุฎุทุงูŠู† ุงูˆู„ุง ุงุณู… ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุงุดุนูŠุงุก
(ุจุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ) ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุนูŠุณูˆ

ุซุงู†ูŠุง
ุญุฒู

which
is found in none of their public books

ุบูŠุฑ
ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ููŠ ูƒุชุจู‡ู… ุงู„ู…ุชุงุญู‡ ู„ู„ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑ

ูˆุงู‡ู…ูŠุฉ
ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุญุฒู ุงู† ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูŠู‚ุฑ ุงู† ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู…ุชุงุญู‡ ู„ู„ูƒู„ ุจุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุฏู„ูŠู„ ุนู„ูŠ
ุนุฏู… ุชุญุฑูŠูู‡ุง

ย 

ูŠ
ู…ุญุฒูˆู

(for by an old idiom, not
peculiar to Hebrew, but found also in Greek, this is said in the plural, although
it refers to but one person
)?

ุชุนุจูŠุฑ
ู‚ุฏูŠู… ุบูŠุฑ ู…ู…ูŠุฒ ู„ู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ูˆู„ูƒู† ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุงูŠุถุง ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ
, ู‚ูŠู„ ุจุงู„ุฌู…ุน ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ูŠุดูŠุฑ ู„ุดุฎุต

ูˆุงู‡ู…ูŠุชู‡
ุงู†ู‡ ูŠูˆุถุญ ุงู† ุงู„ุนุจูŠุฑ ุงู„ู„ุบูˆูŠ ู„ู‚ุตุฉ ู†ุดุฑ ุงุดุนูŠุงุก ุนุจุฑูŠู‡ ุงู„ุงุตู„ ู„ุงู† ุงู„ุชุนุจูŠุฑ ุนุจุฑูŠ

ูƒ
ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ุนู„ูŠ ูŠุฏ ุดูŠูˆุฎ
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ

the Scriptures by men themselves not very far removed from the
counsel of these elders
.

ู…ู†
ุงู„ู†ุต ูˆู‡ูˆ ู‡ู†ุง ูŠุชูƒู„ู… ุนู† ุงู„ู†ุต ู‡ู… ู„ุงูŠุฎุชู„ููˆู† ุนู† ุงู„ุดูŠูˆุฎ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุงุจุนุฏูˆุง ุนู† ู…ุฌู…ุน ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ

ูˆุงู‡ู…ูŠุชู‡
ุงู†ู‡ ูŠุนุจุฑ ุนู† ุงู† ุงู„ู‚ุตู‡ ุงุฎููŠุช ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุต ุจุงูŠุฏูŠ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงุจุนุฏูˆุง ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุฌู…ุน

ย 

ูุงู†
ูุนู„ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒ ุฐู„ูƒ ุณู‡ูˆุง ูู‡ูˆ ูŠุดู‡ุฏ ุงู†ู‡ ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู… ุจุดุฑ ูŠุฎุทุฆ ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุณู„ูŠู… ูˆุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู…
ู„ู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠ ุจู‡ ุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช

ูˆุงู†
ุงุฑุชูƒุจ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุฎุทุงุก ุนู…ุฏุง ููƒูŠู ู†ุตุฏู‚ ุงุณุฆู„ุชู‡ ุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒุŸ ูˆุงุฐุง ูู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ุญุฑู ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุงุญุฏ
ุงุฎุฑ

ย 

ุงุฎูŠุฑุง ุงุนุชุฑุถ ุนู„ูŠ ุนู†ูˆุงู† ู…ู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒ ู„ุงู†ู‡ ูŠูˆุญูŠ ู„ู„ู‚ุงุฑุฆ ู…ู† ุงู„ุจุฏุงูŠู‡ ููƒุฑ
ุฎุทุง ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู† ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุงุนุชุฑู ุจุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ูƒู„ู‡ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุบูŠุฑ ุตุญุญ ูƒู…ุง ุงุซุจุช
ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ู„ู ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ูƒุงู† ูŠุงูƒุฏ ุงุตุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุชูˆุฑุงู‡ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ูŠุชูƒู„ู… ุนู† ุงุฎุชู„ุงู ุชุฑุฌู…ุงุช ู„ู„ุนู‡ุฏ
ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ูู‚ุท

ูˆุงุนุชุฑุถ ุงูŠุถุง ุนู„ูŠ ู…ู‚ุฏู…ุชู‡ ุงู†ู‡ ุงุซุจุช ุชุญุฑูŠู ุงู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ุจุงุฏู„ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุนู‡ุฏ
ุงู„ุฌุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู‚ูˆุงู„ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู„ู… ูŠู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุจุงู„ู…ุฑู‡

ย 

ู…ู„ุฎุต ู…ุง ู‚ุฏู…ุช

ย 

ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ู‡ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู… ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ู„ุงุชูŠู†ูŠู‡ ู„ู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…
ู‡ูˆ ูุนู„ ุจุดุฑูŠ ูˆู„ูŠุณ ู…ู†ุฒู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ูˆุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู…ูˆู† ู„ู… ูŠูˆุญูŠ ุงู„ูŠู‡ู…

ุดุฑุญุช ู…ุฑุงุฑุง ูˆุชูƒุฑุงุฑุง ุงู†ูˆุงุน ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ุงุช ูˆู„ู‡ุงุฐุง ู†ุญู† ู†ุนุชุฑู ุจูƒู„ ุงู„ุชุฑุฌู…ุงุช ุญุชูŠ
ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ุจู‡ุง ู‚ู„ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช ูˆููŠ ุญุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุถุงูุงุช ู‡ุงู…ู‡ ุฌุฏุง ู„ุงู†ู‡ุง ุชุนุจุฑ
ุนู† ููƒุฑ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู‚ุจู„ ุงู„ู…ูŠู„ุงุฏ ู„ุงู† ุจุนุฏ ุงู„ู…ูŠู„ุงุฏ ุญุงูˆู„ูˆุง ุงุฎูุงุก ุจุนุถ ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงูŠุถุง
ุงุฎูุงุก ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุณูุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุฏูŠู†ู‡ู… ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ุงุญุชูุธุช ุจู‡ุง

ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุณูุงุฑ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุญุงูˆู„ูˆุง ุงุฎูุงุคู‡ุง ู…ุนู†ุง ุญุชูŠ ุงู„ุงู† ู…ู† ุงูŠุงู… ุงู„ุณูŠุฏ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ
ูˆุงู„ูŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ูˆุงุฎูŠุฑุง ุงูŠุถุง ู‡ูŠ ู…ุญููˆุธู‡ ููŠ ู…ุฎุทูˆุทุงุช ู‚ู…ุฑุงู† ูˆุงูŠุถุง ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ู†ุต ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠู‡ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง
ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุฑุงุฌู… ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…ู‡

ุงูƒุฏ ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู† ุงู„ุงุตู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠ ุงู„ู…ุงุณูˆุฑูŠุชูƒ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุงุตู„ูŠ ูˆู‡ูˆ
ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ู†ุณุชุฎุฏู…ู‡ ููŠ ู…ู†ุงู‚ุดุงุชู†ุง ูˆุงูŠุถุง ูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ู†ุนุฑู ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู‚ุฑ ุจุงู† ุงู„ุงุณูุงุฑ ุงู„ุชูŠ
ุงุฎูุงู‡ุง ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูˆู„ุงุฒุงู„ุช ููŠ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ุตุญูŠุญู‡ ูˆู…ุนุชุฑู ุจู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒู†ูŠุณู‡ ูˆู…ู† ุจุนุถ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุงูŠุถุง

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ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุงุถุน ู†ุต ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ู‡ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ูƒุงู…ู„

ย 

ูˆุจุนุฏ
ุฐู„ูƒ ุชุฑุฌู…ุชู‡ ู…ู† ุฌูˆุฌู„ ู„ูƒูŠ ู„ุงูŠุชู‡ู…ู†ูŠ ุงุญุฏ ุจุนุฏู… ุงู„ุญูŠุงุฏูŠุฉ

A Letter from Origen to Africanus.

Origen to
Africanus, a beloved brother in God the Father, through Jesus Christ, His holy Child,
greeting. Your letter, from which I learn what you think of the Susanna in the
Book of Daniel
, which is used in the Churches, although apparently somewhat
short, presents in its few words many problems, each of which demands no common
treatment, but such as oversteps the character of a letter, and reaches the limits
of a discourse
. 3028 [See Dr. Puseyโ€™s Lectures on Daniel the Prophet, lect.
vi. p. 326, 327; also The Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures, by Rev. R. W. Churton,
B.D. (1884), pp. 389โ€“404. S.]
And I, when I consider, as best I can, the
measure of my intellect, that I may know myself, am aware that I am wanting in the
accuracy necessary to reply to your letter; and that the more, that the few days
I have spent in Nicomedia have been far from sufficient to send you an answer to
all your demands and queries even after the fashion of the present epistle. Wherefore
pardon my little ability, and the little time I had, and read this letter with all
indulgence, supplying anything I may omit
.

2. You begin
by saying, that when, in my discussion with our friend Bassus, I used the Scripture
which contains the prophecy of Daniel
(ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ ุฃ) when yet a young man in the
affair of Susanna
, I did this
as if it had escaped me that this part of the book was spurious. You say that you
praise this passage as elegantly written, but find fault with it as a more modern
composition, and a forgery; and you add that the forger has had recourse to something
which not even Philistion the play-writer would have used in his puns between prinos
and prisein, schinos and schisis, which words as they sound in Greek can be used
in this way, but not in Hebrew. In answer to this, I have to tell you what it behoves
us to do in the cases not only of the History of Susanna, which is found in every
Church of Christ in that Greek copy which the Greeks use, but is not in the Hebrew,
or of the two other passages you mention at the end of the book containing the history
of Bel and the Dragon, which likewise are not in the Hebrew copy of Daniel; but
of thousands of other passages also which I found in many places when with my little
strength I was collating the Hebrew copies with ours. For in Daniel itself I found
the word โ€œboundโ€ followed in our versions by very many verses which are not in the
Hebrew at all, beginning (according to one of the copies which circulate in the
Churches) thus: โ€œAnanias, and Azarias, and Misael prayed and sang unto God,โ€ down
to โ€œO, all ye that worship the Lord, bless ye the God of gods. Praise Him, and say
that His mercy endureth for ever and ever. And it came to pass, when the king heard
them singing, and saw them that they were alive.โ€
Or, as in another copy, from โ€œAnd they walked in the midst of the fire, praising
God and blessing the Lord,โ€ down to โ€œO, all ye that worship the Lord, bless ye the
God of gods. Praise Him, and say that His mercy endureth to all generations.โ€ 3029 โ€œThe
Song of the Three Holy Childrenโ€ (in the Apocrypha).
But in the Hebrew copies
the words, โ€œAnd these three men, Sedrach, Misach, and Abednego fell down bound into
the midst of the fire,โ€ are immediately followed by the verse, โ€œNabouchodonosor
the king was astonished, and rose up in haste, and spake, and said unto his counsellors
. (ุฌ ุฌ ุฌ ุฌ) โ€ For so Aquila, following the Hebrew reading,
gives it, who has obtained the credit among the Jews of having interpreted the Scriptures
with no ordinary care, and whose version is most commonly used by those who do not
know Hebrew,
(ุฏ ุฏ ุฏ ุฏ ุฏ) as the one which has been
most successful
. Of the copies
in my possession whose readings I gave, one follows the Seventy, and the other Theodotion;
and just as the History of Susanna which you call a forgery is found in both, together
with the passages at the end of Daniel, so they give also these passages, amounting,
to make a rough guess, to more than two hundred verses
.

3. And in
many other of the sacred books I found sometimes more in our copies than in the
Hebrew, sometimes less. I shall adduce a few examples, since it is impossible to
give them all. Of the Book of Esther neither the prayer of Mardochaios nor that
of Esther, both fitted to edify the reader, is found in the Hebrew. Neither are
the letters; 3030 This should probably be corrected, with Pat. Jun., into,
โ€œNor are the letters, neither,โ€ etc.
nor the one written to
Amman about the rooting up of the Jewish nation, nor that of Mardochaios
in the name of Artaxerxes delivering the nation from death. Then in Job, the words
from โ€œIt is written, that he shall rise again with those whom the Lord raises,โ€
to the end, are not in the Hebrew, and so not in Aquilaโ€™s edition; while they are
found in the Septuagint and in Theodotionโ€™s version, agreeing with each other at
least in sense. And many other places I found in Job where our copies have more
than the Hebrew ones, sometimes a little more, and sometimes a great deal more:
a little more, as when to the words, โ€œRising up in the morning, he offered burnt-offerings
for them according to their number,โ€ they add, โ€œone heifer for the sin of their
soul;โ€ and to the words, โ€œThe angels of God came to present themselves before God,
and the devil came with them,โ€ โ€œfrom going to and fro in the earth, and from walking
up and down in it.โ€ Again, after โ€œThe Lord gave, the Lord has taken away,โ€ the Hebrew
has not, โ€œIt was so, as seemed good to the Lord.โ€ Then our copies are very much
fuller than the Hebrew, when Jobโ€™s wife speaks to him, from โ€œHow long wilt thou
hold out? And he said, Lo, I wait yet a little while, looking for the hope of my
salvation,โ€ down to โ€œthat I may cease from my troubles, and my sorrows which compass
me.โ€ For they have only these words of the woman, โ€œBut say a word against God, and
die.โ€

4. Again, through
the whole of Job there are many passages in the Hebrew which are wanting in our
copies, generally four or five verses, but sometimes, however, even fourteen, and
nineteen, and sixteen. But why should I enumerate all the instances I collected
with so much labour, to prove that the difference between our copies and those of
the Jews did not escape me? In Jeremiah I noticed many instances, and indeed in
that book I found much transposition and variation in the readings of the prophecies.
Again, in Genesis, the words, โ€œGod saw that it was good,โ€ when the firmament was
made,
(ู‡ ู‡ ู‡ ู‡) are not found in the Hebrew, and there is no small dispute among them about
this
; and other instances
are to be found in Genesis, which I marked, for the sake of distinction, with the
sign the Greeks call an obelisk, as on the other hand I marked with an asterisk
those passages in our copies which are not found in the Hebrew. What needs there
to speak of Exodus, where there is such diversity in what is said about the tabernacle
and its court,
(ูˆ ูˆูˆ ูˆ) and the ark, and the garments of the high priest and the priests, that
sometimes the meaning even does not seem to be akin? And, forsooth, when we notice
such things, we are forthwith to reject as spurious the copies in use in our Churches,
and enjoin the brotherhood to put away the sacred books current among them, and
to coax the Jews, and persuade them to give us copies which shall be untampered
with, and free from forgery
! Are we to suppose that that Providence which in
the sacred Scriptures has ministered to the edification of all the Churches of Christ,
had no thought for those bought with a price, for whom Christ died; 3031
1 Cor. vi. 20; Rom. xiv. 15. whom, although His Son, God who is love spared
not, but gave Him up for us all, that with Him He might freely give us all things? 3032
Rom. viii. 32.

5. In all these cases
consider whether it would not be well to remember the words, โ€œThou shalt not remove
the ancient landmarks which thy fathers have set.โ€
3033 Prov. xxii. 28. Nor do I say this because I shun the labour
of investigating the Jewish Scriptures, and comparing them with ours, and noticing
their various readings. This, if it be not arrogant to say it, I have already to
a great extent done to the best of my ability, labouring hard to get at the meaning
in all the editions and various readings;
3034 Origenโ€™s most important
contribution to biblical literature was his elaborate attempt to rectify the text
of the Septuagint by collating it with the Hebrew original and other Greek versions.
On this he spent twenty-eight years, during which he travelled through the East
collecting materials. The form in which he first issued the result of his labours
was that of the Tetrapla, which presented in four columns the texts of the LXX.,
Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion.
He next issued the Hexapla, in which the Hebrew text was given, first in Hebrew
and then in Greek letters. Of some books he gave two additional Greek versions,
whence the title Octapla; and there was even a seventh Greek version added for some
books. Unhappily this great work, which extended to nearly fifty volumes, was never
transcribed, and so perished (Kitto, Cycl.).
while I paid particular attention to the interpretation of the
Seventy, lest I might to be found to accredit any forgery to the Churches which
are under heaven,
and give an occasion to those who seek such a starting-point
for gratifying their desire to slander the common brethren, and to bring some accusation
against those who shine forth in our community. And I make it my endeavour not to
be ignorant of their various readings, lest in my controversies with the Jews I
should quote to them what is not found in their copies, and that I may make some
use of what is found there, even although it should not be in our Scriptures. For
if we are so prepared for them in our discussions, they will not, as is their manner,
scornfully laugh at Gentile believers for their ignorance of the true reading as
they have them. So far as to the History of Susanna not being found in the Hebrew
.

6. Let us now look at the things you find fault with in the story itself.
And here let us begin with what would probably make any one averse to receiving
the history: I mean the play of words between prinos and prisis, schinos and schisis.
You say that you can see how this can be in Greek, but that in Hebrew the words
are altogether distinct. On this point, however, I am still in doubt; because, when
I was considering this passage (for I myself saw this difficulty), I consulted not
a few Jews about it, asking them the Hebrew words for prinos and prisein, and how
they would translate schinos the tree, and how schisis. And they said that they
did not know these Greek words prinos and schinos, and asked me to show them the
trees, that they might see what they called them. And I at once (for the truthโ€™s
dear sake) put before them pieces of the different trees. One of them then said,
that he could not with any certainty give the Hebrew name of anything not mentioned
in Scripture, since, if one was at a loss, he was prone to use the Syriac word instead
of the Hebrew one; and he went on to say, that some words the very wisest could
not translate. โ€œIf, then,โ€ said he,
(ุญ ุญ ุญ ุญ)โ€œyou can adduce a passage in any Scripture where the schinos is
mentioned, or the prinos, you will find there the words you seek, together with
the words which have the same sound;
but if it is nowhere mentioned, we also do not know it.โ€ This, then,
being what the Hebrews said to whom I had recourse, and who were acquainted with
the history, I am cautious of affirming whether or not there is any correspondence
to this play of words in the Hebrew. Your reason for affirming that there is not,
you yourself probably know
.

7. Moreover,
I remember hearing from a learned Hebrew, said among themselves to be the son of
a wise man, and to have been specially trained to succeed his father, with whom
I had intercourse on many subjects, the names of these elders, just as if he did
not reject the History of Susanna, as they occur in Jeremias as follows: โ€œThe Lord
make thee like Zedekias and Achiab, whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire,
for the iniquity they did in Israel.โ€
3035 Jer. xxix. 22, 23. How, then, could the one be sawn asunder by an angel, and the other
rent in pieces? The answer is, that these things were prophesied not of this world,
but of the judgment of God, after the departure from this world. For as the lord
of that wicked servant who says, โ€œMy lord delayeth his coming,โ€ and so gives himself
up to drunkenness, eating and drinking with drunkards, and smiting his fellow-servants,
shall at his coming โ€œcut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the unbelievers,โ€
3036 Luke xii. 45, 46. even so the angels appointed to punish will
accomplish these things (just as they will cut asunder the wicked steward of that
passage) on these men, who were called indeed elders, but who administered their
stewardship wickedly. One will saw asunder him who was waxen old in wicked days,
who had pronounced false judgment, condemning the innocent, and letting the guilty
go free;
3037 Susanna 52, 53. and another will rend in pieces him of the
seed of Chanaan, and not of
Judah, whom beauty had deceived, and whose heart
lust had perverted.
3038 Susanna 56.

8. And I knew another Hebrew, who told about these
elders such traditions as the following: that they pretended to the Jews in captivity,
who were hoping by the coming of Christ to be freed from the yoke of their enemies,
that they could explain clearly the things concerning Christ,โ€ฆand that they so deceived
the wives of their countrymen.
3039 Et utrumque sigillatim in quamcunque mulierem incidebat, et
cui vitium afferre cupiebat, ei secreto affirmasse sibi a Deo datum e suo semine
progignere Christum. Hinc spe gignendi Christum decepta mulier, sui copiam decipienti
faciebat, et sic civium uxores stuprabant seniores Achiab et Sedekias.
Wherefore it is that the prophet Daniel calls
the one โ€œwaxen old in wicked days,โ€ and says to the other, โ€œThus have ye dealt with
the children of
Israel; but the daughters of Juda would not abide
your wickedness.โ€

9. But probably to this
you will say, Why then is the โ€œHistoryโ€ not in their Daniel, if, as you say, their
wise men hand down by tradition such stories? The answer is, that they hid from
the knowledge of the people as many of the passages which contained any scandal
against the elders, rulers, and judges, as they could, some of which have been preserved
in uncanonical writings (Apocrypha)
. As an example, take the story told about
(ุท ุท ุท ุท) Esaias; and guaranteed by the Epistle to the Hebrews,
which is found in none of their public books.
For the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, in speaking of the prophets, and what
they suffered, says, โ€œThey were stoned, they were sawn asunder, they were slain
with the sword.โ€
3040 Heb. xi. 37. To whom, I ask, does the โ€œsawn asunderโ€ refer(ูŠ ูŠ ูŠ ูŠ) (for by an old idiom, not peculiar to Hebrew, but found
also in Greek, this is said in the plural, although it refers to but one person
)?
Now we know very well that tradition says that Esaias the prophet was sawn asunder;
and this is found in some apocryphal work, which probably the Jews have purposely
tampered with, introducing some phrases manifestly incorrect, that discredit might
be thrown on the whole
.

However, some one hard pressed by this argument
may have recourse to the opinion of those who reject this Epistle as not being Paulโ€™s;
against whom I must at some other time use other arguments to prove that it is Paulโ€™s.
3041 [See note supra, p. 239.
S.]
At present I shall adduce
from the Gospel what Jesus Christ testifies concerning the prophets, together with
a story which He refers to, but which is not found in the Old Testament, since in
it also there is a scandal against unjust judges in
Israel. The words of our Saviour run thus: โ€œWoe unto you, scribes
and Pharisees, hypocrites because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish
the sepulchres of the righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers,
we would not have been partaken with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore
be ye witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the
prophets. Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. Ye serpents, ye generation
of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of Gehenna? Wherefore, behold, I send
unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes; and some of them ye shall kill and
crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them
from city to city: that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the
earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias,
whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these
things shall come upon this generation.โ€ And what follows is of the same tenor:
โ€œO Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which
are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even
as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your
house is left unto you desolate.โ€
3042 Matt.
xxiii. 29โ€“38
.

Let us see now if in these cases we are not
forced to the conclusion, that while the Saviour gives a true account of them, none
of the Scriptures which could prove what He tells are to be found. For they who
build the tombs of the prophets and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, condemning
the crimes their fathers committed against the righteous and the prophets, say,
โ€œIf we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with
them in the blood of the prophets.โ€
3043 Matt.
xxiii. 30
. In the blood of what prophets, can any one
tell me? For where do we find anything like this written of Esaias, or Jeremias,
or any of the twelve, or Daniel? Then about Zacharias the son of Barachias, who
was slain between the temple and the altar, we learn from Jesus only, not knowing
it otherwise from any Scripture. Wherefore I think no other supposition is possible,
than that they who had the reputation of wisdom, and the rulers and elders, took
away from the people every passage which might bring them into discredit among the
people. We need not wonder, then, if this history of the evil device of the licentious
elders against Susanna is true, but was concealed and removed from the Scriptures by men themselves not very far removed
from the counsel of these elders
.

In the Acts of the Apostles also, Stephen, in his other testimony,
says, โ€œWhich of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? And they have slain
them which showed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom ye have been now
the betrayers and murderers.โ€
3044 Acts
vii. 52
. That Stephen speaks the truth, every one will
admit who receives the Acts of the Apostles; but it is impossible to show from the
extant books of the Old Testament how with any justice he throws the blame of having
persecuted and slain the prophets on the fathers of those who believed not in Christ.
And Paul, in the first Epistle to the Thessalonians, testifies this concerning the
Jews: โ€œFor ye, brethren, became followers of the Churches of God which in Judea
are in Christ Jesus: for ye also have suffered like things of your own countrymen,
even as they have of the Jews; who both killed the Lord Jesus and their own prophets,
and have persecuted us; and they please not God, and are contrary to all men.โ€
3045 1 Thess. ii. 14, 15. What I have said is, I think, sufficient to
prove that it would be nothing wonderful if this history were true, and the licentious
and cruel attack was actually made on Susanna by those who were at that time elders,
and written down by the wisdom of the Spirit, but
removed by these rulers of Sodom,
3046 Isa. i. 10. as the Spirit
would call them
.

10. Your
next objection is, that in this writing Daniel is said to have been seized by the
Spirit, and to have cried out that the sentence was unjust; while in that writing
of his which is universally received he is represented as prophesying in quite another
manner, by visions and dreams, and an angel appearing to him, but never by prophetic
inspiration. You seem to me to pay too little heed to the words, โ€œAt sundry times,
and in divers manners, God spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets.โ€
3047 Heb. i. 1. This is true not only in the general, but
also of individuals. For if you notice, you will find that the same saints have
been favoured with divine dreams and angelic appearances and (direct) inspirations.
For the present it will suffice to instance what is testified concerning Jacob.
Of dreams from God he speaks thus: โ€œAnd it came to pass, at the time that the cattle
conceived, that I saw them before my eyes in a dream, and, behold, the rams and
he-goats which leaped upon the sheep and the goats, white-spotted, and speckled,
and grisled. And the angel of God spake unto me in a dream, saying, Jacob. And I
said, What is it? And he said, Lift up thine eyes and see, the goats and rams leaping
on the goats and sheep, white-spotted, and speckled, and grisled: for I have seen
all that Laban doeth unto thee. I am God, who appeared unto thee in the place of
God, where thou anointedst to Me there a pillar, and vowedst a vow there to Me:
now arise, get thee out from this land, and return unto the land of thy kindred.โ€
3048 Gen. xxxi. 10โ€“13.

And as to an
appearance (which is better than a dream), he speaks as follows about himself: โ€œAnd
Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the
day. And he saw that he prevailed not against him, and he touched the breadth of
his thigh; and the breadth of Jacobโ€™s thigh grew stiff while he was wrestling with
him. And he said to him, Let me go, for the day breaketh. And he said, I will not
let thee go, except thou bless me. And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he
said, Jacob. And he said to him, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but
Israel shall be thy name: for thou hast prevailed with God, and art
powerful with men. And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me thy name. And he said,
Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there. And
Jacob called the name of the place Vision of God: for I have seen God face to face,
and my life is preserved. And the sun rose, when the vision of God passed by.โ€
3049 Gen. xxxii. 24โ€“31. And that he also prophesied by inspiration,
is evident from this passage: โ€œAnd Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather
yourselves together, that I may tell you what shall befall you in the last days.
Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto
Israel your father. Reuben, my first-born, my might, and the beginning
of my children, hard to be born, hard and stubborn. Thou wert wanton, boil not over
like water; because thou wentest up to thy fatherโ€™s bed; then defiledst thou the
couch to which thou wentest up.โ€
3050 Gen.
xlix. 1โ€“4
. And so with the rest: it was by inspiration
that the prophetic blessings were pronounced. We need not wonder, then, that Daniel
sometimes prophesied by inspiration, as when he rebuked the elders sometimes, as
you say, by dreams and visions, and at other times by an angel appearing unto him
.

11. Your other objections are stated, as it appears to me, somewhat
irreverently, and without the becoming spirit of piety. I cannot do better than
quote your very words: โ€œThen, after crying out in this extraordinary fashion, he
detects them in a way no less incredible, which not even Philistion the play-writer
would have resorted to. For, not satisfied with rebuking them through the Spirit,
he placed them apart, and asked them severally where they saw her committing adultery;
and when the one said, โ€˜Under a holm-treeโ€™ (prinos) he answered that the angel would
saw him asunder (prisein); and in a similar fashion threatened the other, who said,
โ€˜Under a mastich-treeโ€™ (schinos), with being rent asunder.โ€

You
might as reasonably compare to Philistion the play-writer, a story somewhat like
this one, which is found in the third book of Kings, which you yourself will admit
to be well written. Here is what we read in Kings: โ€”

โ€œThen there appeared two women that were harlots
before the king, and stood before him. And the one woman said, To me, my lord, I
and this woman dwell in one house; and we were delivered in the house. And it came
to pass, the third day after that I was delivered, that this woman was delivered
also: and we were together; there is no one in our house except us two. And this
womanโ€™s child died in the night; because she overlaid it. And she arose at
midnight, and took my son from my arms. And thine handmaid slept. And she laid
it in her bosom, and laid her dead child in my bosom. And I arose in the morning
to give my child suck, and he was dead; but when I had considered it in the morning,
behold, it was not my son which I did bear. And the other woman said, Nay; the dead
is thy son, but the living is my son. And the other said, No; the living is my son,
but the dead is thy son. Thus they spake before the king. Then said the king, Thou
sayest, This is my son that liveth, and thy son is the dead: and thou sayest, Nay;
but thy son is the dead, and my son is the living. And the king said, Bring me a
sword. And they brought a sword before the king. And the king said, Divide the living
child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other. Then spake the woman
whose the living child was unto the king (for her bowels yearned after her son),
and she said, To me, my lord, give her the living child, and in no wise slay it.
But the other said, Let it be neither mine nor thine, but divide it. Then the king
answered and said, Give the child to her which said, Give her the living child,
and in no wise slay it: for she is the mother of it. And all
Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared
the face of the king: for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him to do judgment.โ€
3051 1 Kings iii. 16โ€“28.

For if we were at liberty to speak in this
scoffing way of the Scriptures in use in the Churches, we should rather compare
this story of the two harlots to the play of Philistion than that of the chaste
Susanna. And just as the people would not have been persuaded if Solomon had merely
said, โ€œGive this one the living child, for she is the mother of it;โ€ so Danielโ€™s
attack on the elders would not have been sufficient had there not been added the
condemnation from their own mouth, when both said that they had seen her lying with
the young man under a tree, but did not agree as to what kind of tree it was. And
since you have asserted, as if you knew for certain, that Daniel in this matter
judged by inspiration (which may or may not have been the case), I would have you
notice that there seem to me to be some analogies in the story of Daniel to the
judgment of Solomon, concerning whom the Scripture testifies that the people saw
that the wisdom of God was in him to do judgment.
3052 1 Kings iii. 28. This might be said also of Daniel, for it
was because wisdom was in him to do judgment that the elders were judged in the
manner described
.

12. I had nearly forgotten an additional remark
I have to make about the prino-prisein and schino-schisein difficulty; that is,
that in our Scriptures there are many etymological fancies, so to call them, which
in the Hebrew are perfectly suitable, but not in the Greek. It need not surprise
us, then, if the translators of the History of Susanna contrived it so that they
found out some Greek words, derived from the same root, which either corresponded
exactly to the Hebrew form
(though this I hardly think possible), or presented
some analogy to it
. Here is an instance of this in our Scripture. When the woman
was made by God from the rib of the man, Adam says, โ€œShe shall be called woman,
because she was taken out of her husband.โ€ Now the Jews say that the woman was called
โ€œEssa,โ€ and that โ€œtakenโ€ is a translation of this word as is evident from โ€œchos
isouoth essa,โ€ which means, โ€œI have taken the cup of salvation;โ€
3053 Ps. cxvi. 13. and that โ€œisโ€ means โ€œman,โ€ as we see from
โ€œHesre aรฏs,โ€ which is, โ€œBlessed is the man.โ€
3054 Ps. i. 1. According to the Jews, then, โ€œisโ€ is โ€œman,โ€
and โ€œessa,โ€ โ€œwoman,โ€ because she was taken out of her husband (is). It need not
then surprise us if some interpreters of the Hebrew โ€œSusanna,โ€ which had been concealed
among them at a very remote date, and had been preserved only by the more learned
and honest, should have either given the Hebrew word for word, or hit upon some
analogy to the Hebrew forms, that the Greeks might be able to follow them. For in
many other passages we can find traces of this kind of contrivance on the part of
the translators, which I noticed when I was collating the various editions
.

13.
You raise another objection, which I give in your own words: โ€œMoreover, how is it
that they, who were captives among the Chaldeans, lost and won at play, thrown out
unburied on the streets, as was prophesied of the former captivity, their sons torn
from them to be eunuchs, and their daughters to be concubines, as had been prophesied;
how is it that such could pass sentence of death, and that on the wife of their
king Joakim, whom the king of the Babylonians had made partner of his throne? Then,
if it was not this Joakim, but some other from the common people, whence had a captive
such a mansion and spacious garden?โ€

Where you get
your โ€œlost and won at play, and thrown out unburied on the streets,โ€ I know
not, unless it is from Tobias; and Tobias (as also Judith), we ought to notice,
the Jews do not use. They are not even found in the Hebrew Apocrypha, as I learned
from the Jews themselves. However, since the Churches use Tobias, you must
know that even in the captivity some of the captives were rich and well to do. Tobias
himself says, โ€œBecause I remembered God with all my heart; and the Most High gave
me grace and beauty in the eyes of Nemessarus, and I was his purveyor; and I went
into Media, and left in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias, at Ragi, a city
of Media, ten talents of silver.โ€
3055 Tob.
i. 12โ€“14
. And he adds, as if he were a rich man, โ€œIn
the days of Nemessarus I gave many alms to my brethren. I gave my bread to the hungry,
and my clothes to the naked: and if I saw any of my nation dead, and cast outside
the walls of Nineve, I buried him; and if king Senachereim had slain any when he
came fleeing from Judea, I buried them privily (for in his wrath he killed many).โ€
Think whether this great catalogue of Tobiasโ€™s good deeds does not betoken great
wealth and much property, especially when he adds, โ€œUnderstanding that I was sought
for to be put to death, I withdrew myself for fear, and all my goods were forcibly
taken away.โ€
3056 Tob. i. 19.

And another captive, Dachiacharus, the son of Ananiel, the brother
of Tobias, was set over all the exchequer of the kingdom of king Acherdon; and we
read, โ€œNow Achiacharus was cup-bearer and keeper of the signet, and steward and
overseer of the accounts.โ€
3057 Tob.
i. 22
.

Mardochaios,
too, frequented the court of the king, and had such boldness before him, that he
was inscribed among the benefactors of Artaxerxes
.

Again we read in Esdras, that Neemias, a cup-bearer and eunuch of the
king, of Hebrew race, made a request about the rebuilding of the temple, and obtained
it; so that it was granted to him, with many more, to return and build the temple
again. Why then should we wonder that one Joakim had garden, and house, and property,
whether these were very expensive or only moderate, for this is not clearly told
us in the writing?

14.
But you say, โ€œHow could they who were in captivity pass sentence of death?โ€ asserting,
I know not on what grounds, that Susanna was the wife of a king, because of the
name Joakim. The answer is, that it is no uncommon thing, when great nations become
subject, that the king should allow the captives to use their own laws and courts
of justice. Now, for instance, that the Romans rule, and the Jews pay the half-shekel
to them, how great power by the concession of Cรฆsar the ethnarch has; so that
we, who have had experience of it, know that he differs in little from a true king!
Private trials are held according to the law, and some are condemned to death. And
though there is not full licence for this, still it is not done without the knowledge
of the ruler, as we learned and were convinced of when we spent much time in the
country of that people. And yet the Romans only take account of two tribes, while
at that time besides Judah there were the ten tribes of Israel. Probably the Assyrians
contented themselves with holding them in subjection, and conceded to them their
own judicial processes
.

15. I find in your letter yet another objection in these words:
โ€œAnd add, that among all the many prophets who had been before, there is no one
who has quoted from another word for word. For they had no need to go a-begging
for words, since their own were true. But this one, in rebuking one of these men,
quotes the words of the Lord, โ€˜The innocent and righteous shalt thou not slay.โ€™โ€
I cannot understand how, with all your exercise in investigating and meditating
on the Scriptures, you have not noticed that the prophets continually quote each
other almost word for word. For who of all believers does not know the words in
Esaias? โ€œAnd in the last days the mountain of the Lord shall be manifest, and
the house of the Lord on the top of the mountains
, and it shall be exalted above
the hills; and all nations shall come unto it. And many people shall go and say,
Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, unto the house of the God
of Jacob; and He will teach us His way, and we will walk in it: for out of
Zion shall go forth a law, and a word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many
people; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into
pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation; neither shall they
learn war any more.โ€
3058 Isa. ii. 2โ€“4.

But in Micah we find a parallel passage, which is almost word
for word: โ€œAnd in the last days the mountain of the Lord shall be manifest, established
on the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people
shall hasten unto it. And many nations shall come, and say, Come, let us go up to
the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and they will teach
us His way, and we will walk in His paths: for a law shall go forth from Zion, and
a word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among many people, and rebuke
strong nations; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears
into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall
they learn war any more.โ€
3059 Mic.
iv. 1โ€“3
.

Again, in First Chronicles, the psalm which is put in the hands
of Asaph and his brethren to praise the Lord, beginning, โ€œGive thanks unto the Lord,
call upon His name,โ€
3060 1 Chron. xvi. 8. is in the beginning almost identical with
Psalm cv., down to โ€œand do my prophets no harm;โ€ and
after that it is the same as
Psalm xcvi.,
from the beginning of that psalm, which is something like this, โ€œPraise the Lord
all the earth,โ€ down to โ€œFor He cometh to judge the earth.โ€ (It would have taken
up too much time to quote more fully; so I have given these short references, which
are sufficient for the matter before us.) And you will find the law about not bearing
a burden on the Sabbath-day in Jeremias, as well as in Moses.
3061 Ex. xxxv. 2; Num. xv. 32; Jer. xvii. 21โ€“24. And the rules about the passover, and the
rules for the priests, are not only in Moses, but also at the end of Ezekiel.
3062 In Levit. passim; Ezek. xliii.; xliv.; xlv.; xlvi. I would have quoted these, and many more,
had I not found that from the shortness of my stay in Nicomedia my time for writing
you was already too much restricted
.

Your
last objection is, that the style is different. This I cannot see
.

This,
then, is my defence. I might, especially after all these accusations, speak in praise
of this history of Susanna, dwelling on it word by word, and expounding the exquisite
nature of the thoughts. Such an encomium, perhaps, some of the learned and able
students of divine things may at some other time compose. This, however, is my answer
to your strokes, as you call them. Would that I could instruct you! But I do not
now arrogate that to myself. My lord and dear brother Ambrosius, who has written
this at my dictation, and has, in looking over it, corrected as he pleased, salutes
you. His faithful spouse, Marcella, and her children, also salute you. Also Anicetus.
Do you salute our dear father Apollinarius, and all our friends
.

ย 

ูˆู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ู…ูˆุฌู‡ุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุฃูุฑูŠูƒุงู†ูˆุณ.

ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ
ู„ุฃูุฑูŠูƒุงู†ูˆุณุŒ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุงุฎ ุงู„ุญุจูŠุจ ููŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุขุจุŒ ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚ ูŠุณูˆุน ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุฅู† ุงู„ุทูู„
ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุฉุŒ ูˆุชุญูŠุฉ. ุฑุณุงู„ุชูƒู…ุŒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฃุชุนู„ู… ู…ุง ุฑุฃูŠูƒ ููŠ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ
ูŠุณุชุฎุฏู… ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณุŒ ุฑุบู… ู…ุง ูŠุจุฏูˆ ุงู„ู‰ ุญุฏ ู…ุง ุจุงุฎุชุตุงุฑุŒ ูŠู‚ุฏู… ููŠ ุจุถุน ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู†
ุงู„ู…ุดุงูƒู„ุŒ ูƒู„ ูˆุงุญุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุทุงู„ุจ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ุง ุนู„ุงุฌ ู…ุดุชุฑูƒุฉุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู…ุซู„ ูŠุชุฌุงูˆุฒ ุทุงุจุน ุงู„ุฑุณุงู„ุฉุŒ
ูˆูŠุตู„ ุงู„ู‰ ุญุฏูˆุฏ ุงู„ุฎุทุงุจ.3028 ุงู†ุธุฑ ุงู„ุฏูƒุชูˆุฑ ู„ุจุณูŠ ู…ุญุงุถุฑุงุช ุนู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ุŒ
lect. ุณุงุฏุณุง. ุต. 326ุŒ 327 ุ› ุฃูŠุถุง ูˆUncanonical ู…ู„ูู‚ ูˆุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุŒ ุจูˆุงุณุทุฉ ุงู„ู‚ุณ R. W. ChurtonุŒ B.D. (1884)ุŒ ุต. 389-404. S.] ูˆุฃู†ุงุŒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒู†ุช ุชู†ุธุฑุŒ ู‚ุฏุฑ ุงุณุชุทุงุนุชูŠุŒ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ุฏุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฐูƒุงุก ุจู„ุฏูŠุŒ
ุฅู† ุฌุงุฒ ู„ูŠ ุงู† ุฃุนุฑู ู†ูุณูŠุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ุฃุฏุฑูƒ ุฃู† ูˆุฃู†ุง ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฑุงุบุจูŠู† ููŠ ุงู„ุฏู‚ุฉ ุงู„ู„ุงุฒู…ุฉ ู„ู„ุฑุฏ
ุนู„ู‰ ุฑุณุงู„ุชูƒู…ุŒ ูˆุฃู† ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ุฃู† ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุฉ ุฃู†ุง ูˆู‚ุฏ ู‚ุถู‰ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ูŠู‚ูˆู…ูŠุฏูŠ ูƒุงู†ุช
ุจุนูŠุฏุฉ ุนู† ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ูƒุงููŠุฉ ู„ู†ุฑุณู„ ู„ูƒ ุฅุฌุงุจุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ูƒู„ ู…ุง ุชุจุฐู„ูˆู†ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุทู„ุจุงุช ูˆุงู„ุงุณุชูุณุงุฑุงุช
ุญุชู‰ ุจุนุฏ ุฃุฒูŠุงุก ู…ู† ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุจูˆู„ุณ ุงู„ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ุญุงุถุฑ. ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุณุจุจ ุงู„ุนููˆ ู‚ุฏุฑุชูŠ ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุงุŒ ูˆูƒุงู†
ู„ูŠ ุณูˆู‰ ุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ูˆู‚ุฑุงุกุฉ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ู…ุน ูƒู„ ุชุณุงู‡ู„ุŒ ุชูˆุฑูŠุฏ ุฃูŠ ุดูŠุก ูƒู†ุช ู‚ุฏ
ุญุฐูุช.

2.
ุฃู†ุช ุฃุจุฏุฃ ุจุงู„ู‚ูˆู„ุŒ ุงู†ู‡ ุนู†ุฏู…ุงุŒ ููŠ ู…ู†ุงู‚ุดุชูŠ ู…ุน ุจุงุณูˆุณ ุตุฏูŠู‚ ู„ู†ุงุŒ ูˆูƒู†ุช ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ
ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุญุชูˆูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ู†ุจูˆุกุฉ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ุจุนุฏ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒุงู† ุดุงุจุง ููŠ ู‚ุถูŠุฉ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุงุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ูุนู„ุช ู‡ุฐุง
ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ู‚ุฏ ูุฑ ู„ูŠ ุฃู† ู‡ุฐุง ุฌุฒุก ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ู‡ูˆ ุฒุงุฆู. ูŠู…ูƒู†ูƒ ุฃู† ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูƒู… ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุซู†ุงุก
ู…ุฑูˆุฑ ุฃู†ูŠู‚ ูƒู…ุง ูƒุชุจุชุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู…ุน ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ุนู„ู‰ ุฎุทุฃ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุชูƒูˆูŠู† ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุญุฏุงุซุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑุŒ
ูˆุฃุถูุช ุฃู† ู…ุฒูˆุฑ ู‚ุฏ ู„ุฌุฃุช ุฅู„ู‰ ุดูŠุก ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุญุชู‰
Philistion
ุงู„ู…ุณุฑุญูŠุฉ ุงู„ูƒุงุชุจ ู‚ุฏ ุงุณุชุฎุฏู…ุช ููŠ ุชู‚ุฑูŠุฑู‡ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุชูˆุฑูŠุฉ
prinos
ูˆ
priseinุŒ schinos ูˆschisisุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ูƒุงู†ุช ุนุจุงุฑุฉ ุนู† ุตูˆุช ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ุชุณุชุฎุฏู… ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง
ุงู„ุณุจูŠู„ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ูŠุณ ุจุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆููŠ ุงู„ุฅุฌุงุจุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐุงุŒ ู„ุง ุจุฏ ู„ูŠ ู…ู† ุงู† ุงู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูƒู…
ู…ุง ูŠุชุนูŠู† ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู… ุจู‡ ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุชุŒ ู„ูŠุณ ูู‚ุท ู…ู† ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุงุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ุชู…
ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ููŠ ูƒู„ ูƒู†ูŠุณุฉ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุงู„ุฅุบุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู…ุŒ
ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ูŠุณ ููŠ ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ุฃูˆ ู„ุงุซู†ูŠู† ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู…ุฑุงุช ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุฃุฐูƒุฑ ู„ูƒู… ููŠ ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ ู‡ุฐุง
ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุญุชูˆูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ู…ู† ุจู„ุฌูŠูƒุง ูˆุงู„ุชู†ูŠู†ุŒ ูˆุจุงู„ู…ุซู„ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ
ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู„ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุขู„ุงู ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงุทุน ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุฃูŠุถุง ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ูˆุฌุฏุช ููŠ ุฃู…ุงูƒู† ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ
ู…ุน ู‚ูˆุชูŠ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒู†ุช ุตุบูŠุฑุฉ ุฌู…ุน ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู…ุน ู…ุตุงู„ุญู†ุง. ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ููŠ ุญุฏ
ุฐุงุชู‡ ูˆุฌุฏุช ูƒู„ู…ุฉ “ู…ู„ุฒู…ุฉ” ูŠุชุจุน ููŠ ู…ู†ุทู‚ุชู†ุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุนุฏุฏ ูƒุจูŠุฑ ุฌุฏุง ู…ู†
ุงู„ุฅุตุฏุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ููŠ ูƒู„ ุดูŠุกุŒ ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ (ูˆูู‚ุง ู„ุฃุญุฏ ู…ู†
ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชูˆุฒุน ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ) ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู†ุญูˆ ุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠ: “ุญู†ุงู†ูŠุงุŒ ูˆุฃุฒุงุฑูŠุงุณุŒ ูˆู…ูŠุณุงุฆูŠู„
ุตู„ู‰ ูˆุบู†ู‰ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡”ุŒ ูˆุตูˆู„ุง ุงู„ู‰ “ูŠุง ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู…ุชุนุจูŠู† ุงู„ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุฑุจ ูŠุจุงุฑูƒ
ูƒู†ุชู… ุฅู„ู‡ ุงู„ุขู„ู‡ุฉ. ุงู„ุญู…ุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู‚ูˆู„ ุจุฃู† ุฑุญู…ุชู‡
endureth
ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃุจุฏ ุงู„ุขุจุฏูŠู†ุŒ ูˆุงู†ู‡ ุฌุงุก ู„ุชู…ุฑูŠุฑุŒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู‚ุงู… ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุงุณุชู…ุน ู„ู‡ู… ูˆุงู„ุบู†ุงุกุŒ ูˆุฑุขู‡ู… ุฃู†ู‡ู…
ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ูŠุฏ ุงู„ุญูŠุงุฉ. “ุฃูˆุŒ ูƒู…ุง ููŠ ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ู…ู† “ูˆุณุงุฑูˆุง ููŠ ูˆุณุท ุงู„ู†ุงุฑุŒ
ุจุญู…ุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆู†ุนู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฑุจุŒ” ูˆุตูˆู„ุง ุงู„ู‰ “ูŠุง ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู…ุชุนุจูŠู† ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุฑุจ ูŠุจุงุฑูƒ
ูƒู†ุชู… ุฅู„ู‡ ุงู„ุขู„ู‡ุฉ. ุงู„ุญู…ุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู‚ูˆู„ ุจุฃู† ุฑุญู…ุชู‡
endureth
ู„ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุฃุฌูŠุงู„ “.3029 “ูˆุงู„ุฃุบู†ูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ุฃุทูุงู„ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุฉ” (ููŠ
ุงุจูˆูƒุฑูŠูุง). ูˆู„ูƒู† ููŠ ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุงุถุงู “ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซุฉุŒ
SedrachุŒ MisachุŒ ูˆAbednego ุณู‚ุทูˆุง ู…ูˆุซู‚ูŠู† ููŠ ูˆุณุท ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ”ุŒ ูˆุชู„ูŠู‡ุง ู…ุจุงุดุฑุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉุŒ “Nabouchodonosor ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุงุณุชุบุฑุจุŒ ูˆุงู†ุชูุถ ุนู„ู‰ ุนุฌู„ ูˆุชูƒู„ู… ุจู‡ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‚ูˆู…ู‡ ู…ุณุชุดุงุฑูŠู†.
“ุญุชู‰ ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ุงูƒูˆูŠู„ุงุŒ ุจุนุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆูŠุนุทูŠู‡ุงุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุญุตู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงุฆุชู…ุงู†
ุจูŠู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู…ู† ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุชูุณูŠุฑ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ู…ุน ุนุฏู… ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุฑุนุงูŠุฉ ุงู„ุนุงุฏูŠูŠู†ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ
ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู…ุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุฃูˆู„ุฆูƒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ู„ุง ูŠุนุฑููˆู† ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ุจูˆุตูู‡ุง ูˆุงุญุฏุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ
ูƒุงู†ุช ุงู„ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู†ุฌุงุญุง. ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุชูŠ ููŠ ุญูˆุฒุชูŠ ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ุฃุนุทู‰ุŒ ููŠ ุฃุนู‚ุงุจ ูˆุงุญุฏ ูˆุณุจุนูˆู†ุŒ ูˆ
Theodotion ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ูˆู…ุซู„ู…ุง ุฃู† ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุชุณู…ูˆู†ู‡ ุงู„ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑ ุชู… ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ
ุนู„ู‰ ููŠ ุงู„ุงุซู†ูŠู† ู…ุนุงุŒ ุฌู†ุจุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุฌู†ุจ ู…ุน ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงุทุน ููŠ ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ุŒ ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูุฅู†ู‡ุง ุชุนุทูŠ
ุฃูŠุถุง ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงุทุนุŒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุจู„ุบุŒ ู„ุชู‚ุฏูŠู… ุชุฎู…ูŠู† ุงู„ุฎุงู…ุŒ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† ู…ุงุฆุชูŠ ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช.

3.
ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุฉ ูˆุฌุฏุช ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃุญูŠุงู† ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู…ุง ู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ู…ู† ู†ุณุฎ ููŠ
ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุฃุญูŠุงู†ุง ุฃู‚ู„. ุณุฃุฏู„ูŠ ูŠูˆุฑุฏ ุฃู…ุซู„ุฉ ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุฉุŒ ู†ุธุฑุง ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุณุชุญูŠู„ ุฃู†
ุฃุนุทูŠ ูƒู„ ู…ู†ู‡ู…. ู…ู† ูƒุชุงุจ ุงุณุชุฑ ู„ุง ุตู„ุงุฉ
Mardochaios ูˆู„ุง ุฃู† ุงุณุชูŠุฑุŒ ุนู„ู‰ ุญุฏ ุณูˆุงุก ู„ุชุฑูƒูŠุจ 387 ุงู†ุดุฃ ู„ู„ู‚ุงุฑุฆุŒ ูˆุฌุฏุช ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ
ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ. ู„ุง ู‡ูŠ ุฎุทุงุจุงุช ุ›3030 ูˆูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ุฃู† ูŠุชู… ุชุตุญูŠุญ ู‡ุฐุง ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุฑุฌุญุŒ ู…ุน ุจุงุช. ูŠูˆู†ูŠูˆุŒ
ุงู„ู‰ “ูƒู…ุง ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุฑุณุงุฆู„ุŒ ู„ุง ู‡ุฐุง ูˆู„ุง ุฐุงูƒ”ุŒ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ูˆู„ุง ุงุญุฏ ูŠูƒุชุจ ุงู„ู‰ ุนู…ุงู† ุนู†
ุงุณุชุฆุตุงู„ ู…ุง ูŠุตู„ ู„ู„ุฃู…ุฉ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠุฉุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุฃู† ู…ู†
Mardochaios
ููŠ ุงุณู… ุงุฑุชุญุดุณุชุง ุชู‚ุฏูŠู… ุงู„ุงู…ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ูˆุชุŒ ุซู… ููŠ ูˆุธูŠูุฉุŒ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ ุนู† “ู‡ูˆ ู…ูƒุชูˆุจุŒ
ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ุณูˆู ุชุฑุชูุน ู…ุฑุฉ ุงุฎุฑู‰ ู…ุน ุฃูˆู„ุฆูƒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุซูŠุฑ ุงู„ุฑุจุŒ “ุญุชู‰ ุงู„ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉุŒ ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ
ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ู„ูŠุณ ููŠ ุงูƒูŠู„ุง ุทุจุนุฉ ุ› ููŠ ุญูŠู† ุฃู†ู‡ุง ูˆุฌุฏุช ููŠ ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆ
Theodotion ููŠ ุฑูˆุงูŠุฉุŒ ูŠุชูู‚ูˆู† ู…ุน ุจุนุถู‡ู… ุงู„ุจุนุถ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃู‚ู„ ููŠ ุงู„ุฅุญุณุงุณ. ูˆุฃู…ุงูƒู†
ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ูˆุฌุฏุช ููŠ ุญูŠุซ ู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ูุฑุต ุงู„ุนู…ู„ ู„ุฏูŠู‡ุง ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† ู†ุณุฎุฉ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุฃุญูŠุงู†ุง
ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุจู‚ู„ูŠู„ุŒ ูˆุฃุญูŠุงู†ุง ู‚ุฏุฑุง ูƒุจูŠุฑุง ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† ุฐู„ูƒ: ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุงุŒ ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู„ุนุจุงุฑุฉ
“ุงุฑุชูุงุน ูŠุตู„ ููŠ ุงู„ุตุจุงุญุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ุนุฑุถุช ุงู„ู…ุญุฑูˆู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุนุฑูˆุถ ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ู‡ู… ูˆูู‚ุง ู„
ุนุฏุฏ “ุŒ ูŠุถูŠู ู‡ุคู„ุงุกุŒ” ุจู‚ุฑุฉ ุตุบูŠุฑุฉ ูˆุงุญุฏุฉ ุนู† ุฎุทูŠุฆุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฑูˆุญ ุ›
“ูˆุนุจุงุฑุฉ” ูˆู…ู„ุงุฆูƒุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุฌุงุก ููŠ ุชู‚ุฏูŠู… ุฃู†ูุณู‡ู… ุฃู…ุงู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุฌุงุก ุงู„ุดูŠุทุงู† ู…ุนู‡ู…
“ุŒ” ู…ู† ุฌูŠุฆุฉ ูˆุฐู‡ุงุจุง ููŠ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถุŒ ูˆู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุดูŠ ุตุนูˆุฏุง ูˆู‡ุจูˆุทุง ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ. “ู…ุฑุฉ
ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ุจุนุฏ ุงู†” ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ุฃุนุทู‰ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุงุชุฎุฐุช ุจุนูŠุฏุง “ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
ู„ู…”ุŒ ูˆูƒุงู† ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูƒู…ุง ูŠุจุฏูˆ ุฌูŠุฏุง ู„ู„ุฑุจ “ุŒ ุซู… ู†ุณุฎ ู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ูƒุซูŠุฑุง ู…ู† ุฃูˆูู‰
ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูˆุธูŠูุฉ ุงู„ุฒูˆุฌุฉ ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุงู„ูŠู‡ุŒ ู…ู†” ูƒู… ุงู†ุช ุงู„ุฐุจูˆู„ ุงู„ุตู…ูˆุฏุŸ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู‡ุง
ุงู†ุง ุงู†ุชุธุฑ ุจุนุฏ ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆู‚ุชุŒ ูˆุชุจุญุซ ุนู† ุงู„ุฃู…ู„ ููŠ ุฎู„ุงุตูŠ “ุŒ ู†ุฒูˆู„ุง ุฅู„ู‰” ุฃู†
ุฃูƒูˆู† ู‚ุฏ ุชุชูˆู‚ู ุนู† ู…ุดุงูƒู„ ุจู„ุงุฏูŠุŒ ุจู„ุงุฏูŠ ูˆุงู„ุฃุญุฒุงู† ุงู„ุชูŠ ุงู„ุจูˆุตู„ุฉ ู„ูŠ. “ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ
ู„ุฏูŠู‡ู… ุณูˆู‰ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ู…ู† ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉุŒ “ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุถุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆูŠู…ูˆุช”.

4.
ูˆู…ุฑุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ ูƒู„ ูˆุธูŠูุฉ ู…ู† ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงุทุน ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ
ุงู„ุฑุบุจุฉ ููŠ ู†ุณุฎ ู„ุฏูŠู†ุงุŒ ูˆุนู…ูˆู…ุง ุฃุฑุจุน ุฃูˆ ุฎู…ุณ ุขูŠุงุชุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃุญูŠุงู†ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ุŒ ูˆุญุชู‰
ุงู„ุฑุงุจุนุฉ ุนุดุฑุฉุŒ ูˆุชุณุนุฉ ุนุดุฑุŒ ูˆุงู„ุณุงุฏุณุฉ ุนุดุฑุฉ. ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ู…ุงุฐุง ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ุฃู† ุฃุนุฏุฏ ูƒู„ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุช
ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฌู…ุนุชู‡ุง ู…ุน ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุนู…ู„ุŒ ู„ุงุซุจุงุช ุงู† ู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ุงู„ูุฑู‚ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ู… ู…ู†
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู„ู… ูŠู‡ุฑุจ ู„ูŠุŸ ุงุฑู…ูŠุง ุฃู†ู†ูŠ ู„ุงุญุธุช ููŠ ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุชุŒ ูˆูุนู„ุง ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ
ูˆุฌุฏุช ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุชุจุฏูŠู„ ูˆุชุบูŠูŠุฑ ููŠ ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ู…ู† ู†ุจูˆุกุงุช ูˆู…ุฑุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ููŠ ุณูุฑ ุงู„ุชูƒูˆูŠู†ุŒ
ูˆุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุชุŒ “ุดู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุฃู†ู‡ ูƒุงู† ุฌูŠุฏุง”ุŒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู‚ุฏู… ุงู„ุณู…ุงุกุŒ ู„ูŠุณุช ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ููŠ
ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู„ูŠุณ ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุฃูŠ ู†ุฒุงุน ุงู„ุตุบูŠุฑุฉ ููŠู…ุง ุจูŠู†ู‡ุง ุญูˆู„ ู‡ุฐุงุŒ ูˆุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุช ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰
ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ููŠ ุณูุฑ ุงู„ุชูƒูˆูŠู†ุŒ ูˆู‡ูˆ ู…ุง ู…ู„ุญูˆุธุŒ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุชู…ูŠูŠุฒุŒ ู…ุน ุงู„ุชูˆู‚ูŠุน
ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฅุบุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ู…ุณู„ุฉุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู…ู† ู†ุงุญูŠุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุฃู†ุง ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุญู…ู„ ุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ุงู„ู†ุฌู…ุฉ ููŠ ุชู„ูƒ
ุงู„ู…ู…ุฑุงุช ู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ุง ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ. ู…ุงุฐุง ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุญุงุฌุฉ ู„ู„ุญุฏูŠุซ ุนู†
ุงู„ู†ุฒูˆุญ ุงู„ุฌู…ุงุนูŠุŒ ุญูŠุซ ู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุชู†ูˆุน ููŠ ู…ุง ูŠู‚ุงู„ ุนู† ุงู„ู…ุนุจุฏ ูˆุงู„ู…ุญูƒู…ุฉุŒ
ูˆุงู„ูู„ูƒุŒ ูˆุซูŠุงุจ ุงู„ูƒู‡ู†ุฉ ูˆุงู„ูƒู‡ู†ุฉุŒ ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃุญูŠุงู† ุฃู† ุงู„ู…ุนู†ู‰ ุญุชู‰ ู„ุง ูŠุจุฏูˆ ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุณุชูƒูˆู†
ุฃุดุจู‡ุŸ ูˆุŒ
forsoothุŒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู†ู„ุงุญุธ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุกุŒ ูˆู†ุญู† ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ููˆุฑ ุงู„ู‰ ุฑูุถ ูˆู†ุณุฎ ุฒุงุฆูุฉ
ููŠ ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ููŠ ูƒู†ุงุฆุณู†ุงุŒ ูˆุชูˆุฌุจ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุฎูˆุฉ ุจุนูŠุฏุง ู„ูˆุถุน ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุฉ ุงู„ุญุงู„ูŠ ููŠู…ุง
ุจูŠู†ู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุงู‚ู†ุงุน ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏุŒ ูˆุฅู‚ู†ุงุนู‡ู… ุฃู† ูŠู‚ุฏู… ู„ู†ุง ู†ุณุฎุง ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ู…ุน ุบูŠุฑ ุนุงุจุซุŒ
ูˆุฎุงู„ูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑ! ู‡ู„ ู„ู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ูุชุฑุถ ุฃู† ุงู„ุนู†ุงูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฅู„ู‡ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุฉ ู‚ุฏ
ูŠุณุนู ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุชู†ูˆูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุฌู…ูŠุน ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญุŒ ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุงู„ููƒุฑ ู„ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุงุดุชุฑุช ู…ุน ุงู„ุฃุณุนุงุฑุŒ
ูˆู…ุงุช ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ู‡ ุ›3031 1 ูƒูˆุฑ. ุณุงุฏุณุง. 20 ุ› ู…ุฏู…ุฌ. ุงู„ุฑุงุจุน ุนุดุฑ. 15. ู…ู†ู‡ู…ุŒ ุนู„ู‰
ุงู„ุฑุบู… ู…ู† ุงุจู†ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุญุจ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู„ุง ูŠุฏุฎุฑุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ุฃุนุทุงู‡ ุญุชู‰ ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ู†ุง ุฌู…ูŠุนุงุŒ
ู…ุน ุฃู† ู„ู‡ ุงู†ู‡ ู‚ุฏ ุจุญุฑูŠุฉ ูŠุนุทูŠู†ุง ูƒู„ ุดูŠุกุŸ3032ย  ู…ุฏู…ุฌ. ุซุงู…ู†ุง. 32.

5.
ูˆููŠ ุฌู…ูŠุน ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุช ูŠู†ุธุฑ ููŠู…ุง ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฌูŠุฏุง ู„ู†ุชุฐูƒุฑ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ “ุงู†ุช
ู„ุง ุฅุฒุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุงู„ู… ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุขุจุงุคูƒ ูˆุถุนู†ุงู‡ุง.”3033 ุงู„ุฃู‚ู„ูŠู…. ุงู„ุซุงู†ูŠ
ูˆุงู„ุนุดุฑูˆู†. 28. ูˆู„ุง ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ู‡ุฐุง ู„ุฃู†ู†ูŠ ุชู†ุฃู‰ ุจู†ูุณู‡ุง ุนู† ุงู„ุนู…ู„ ุงู„ุชุญู‚ูŠู‚ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏูŠุŒ ูˆู…ู‚ุงุฑู†ุชู‡ุง ู…ุน ุจู„ุฏู†ุงุŒ ูˆูŠู„ุงุญุธ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุงุŒ ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ู„ุง ูŠู…ูƒู†
ุงู„ู…ุชุบุทุฑุณุฉ ุฃู† ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ู„ู‚ุฏ ุณุจู‚ ู„ูŠ ุงู„ู‰ ุญุฏ ูƒุจูŠุฑ ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู… ุจู‡ ู„ู„ุฃูุถู„ ู…ู† ู‚ุฏุฑุชูŠุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู†
ูŠุนู…ู„ูˆู† ุจุฌุฏ ู„ู„ุญุตูˆู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ู‰ ููŠ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุทุจุนุงุช ูˆู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉ ุ›3034 ุงูˆุฑูŠุฌุงู†ูˆุณ ุฃู‡ู…
ู…ุณุงู‡ู…ุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุฃุฏุจ ุงู„ุชูˆุฑุงุชูŠ ูƒุงู† ู„ู‡ ู…ุญุงูˆู„ุฉ ู…ุชุนู…ุฏุฉ ู„ุชุตุญูŠุญ ู†ุต ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉ ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚
ุฌู…ุน ุจูŠู†ู‡ ูˆุจูŠู† ุงู„ู†ุณุฎ ุงู„ุฃุตู„ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ูˆุนู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู…ุถู‰ ุซู…ุงู†ูŠุฉ
ูˆุนุดุฑูŠู† ุนุงู…ุงุŒ ุฎู„ุงู„ู‡ุง ูˆุณุงูุฑ ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚ ุฌู…ุน ุงู„ู…ูˆุงุฏ ุงู„ุดุฑู‚. ูˆุงู„ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุตุฏุฑ ู„ุฃูˆู„ ู…ุฑุฉ
ู†ุชูŠุฌุฉ ู„ูŠุฌุงู‡ุฏ ููŠ ุจู„ุฏู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูƒุงู† ู…ู†
TetraplaุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ุนุฑุถุช ููŠ ุฃุฑุจุนุฉ ุฃุนู…ุฏุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุตูˆุต ุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ูŠุฉุŒ ุงูƒูˆูŠู„ุงุŒ SymmachusุŒ ูˆTheodotion. ูˆุฃุตุฏุฑ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุจู„ HexaplaุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ุฃุนุทูŠุช ุงู„ู†ุต ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุŒ ุฃูˆู„ุง ุจุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ูˆู…ู† ุซู… ููŠ ุฑุณุงู„ุชูŠู†
ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ. ุจุนุถ ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู†ู‡ ุฃุนุทู‰ ุฅุถุงููŠุชูŠู† ุงู„ุฅุตุฏุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉุŒ ู…ู† ุญูŠุซ ุงู„ุนู†ูˆุงู†
Octaplaุ› ูˆูƒุงู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุญุชู‰ ุณุงุจุน ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุฉ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุถุงูุฉ ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ุจุนุถ
ุงู„ูƒุชุจ. ู„ุณูˆุก ุงู„ุญุธ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุนู…ู„ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ุชู…ุชุฏ ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุง ูŠู‚ุฑุจ ู…ู† ุฎู…ุณูŠู† ู…ุฌู„ุฏุงุŒ ู„ู…
ูŠูƒู† ุฃุจุฏุง ู†ุณุฎู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุญุชู‰ ู‡ู„ูƒูˆุง (
KittoุŒ Cycl.). ุจูŠู†ู…ุง ูƒู†ุช ุฃูˆู„ุช ุงู‡ุชู…ุงู…ุง ุฎุงุตุง ู„ู„ุชูุณูŠุฑ ูˆุงู„ุณุจุนูŠู†ุŒ ู„ุฆู„ุง ูŠูƒูˆู†
ู„ุฃู†ู†ูŠ ู‚ุฏ ูˆุฌุฏุช ู„ุงุนุชู…ุงุฏ ุฃูŠ ุชุฒูˆูŠุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ ุชุญุช ุงู„ุณู…ุงุกุŒ ูˆุฅุนุทุงุก ูุฑุตุฉ
ู„ุฃูˆู„ุฆูƒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุณุนูˆู† ู…ุซู„ ู†ู‚ุทุฉ ุงู†ุทู„ุงู‚ ู„ุฏูˆุงุนูŠ ุงู„ุณุฑูˆุฑ ุฑุบุจุชู‡ู… ููŠ ุงู„ุงูุชุฑุงุก ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงุฎูˆุฉ
ุงู„ู…ุดุชุฑูƒุฉุŒ ูˆุชู‚ุฏูŠู… ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุชู‡ุงู…ุงุช ุถุฏ ุฃูˆู„ุฆูƒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠู„ู…ุน ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ููŠ ู…ุฌุชู…ุนู†ุงุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ุชุฌุนู„
ู…ู† ุจู„ุงุฏูŠ ู„ุง ุชุณุนู‰ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ุฌุงู‡ู„ุฉ ู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุงุช ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉุŒ ู„ุฆู„ุง ููŠ ุจู„ุฏูŠ ุงู„ุฎู„ุงูุงุช ู…ุน
ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูˆุฃูˆุฏ ุฃู† ุฃู‚ุชุจุณ ู„ู‡ู… ู…ุง ู„ู… ูŠุชู… ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุณุฎุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู†ูŠ ู‚ุฏ ุชุฌุนู„ ุจุนุถ ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู…
ู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ู‡ู†ุงูƒุŒ ุญุชู‰ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฑุบู… ู…ู† ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุŒ
ู„ุฃู†ู†ุง ุฅุฐุง ู…ุง ุฃุนุฏ ู„ู‡ู… ููŠ ู…ู†ุงู‚ุดุงุชู†ุงุŒ ูุฅู†ู‡ุง ู„ู† ุชู‚ูˆู…ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ู†ู‡ุฌู‡ู…ุŒ ุจุงุฒุฏุฑุงุก ุชุถุญูƒ
ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุงู„ู…ุคู…ู†ูŠู† ู„ุฌู‡ู„ู‡ู… ู„ู‚ุฑุงุกุฉ ุตุญูŠุญุฉ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ู…ู†ู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆุญุชู‰ ุงู„ุขู† ูˆุฅู„ู‰ ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง
ู„ู… ูŠุชู… ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ.

6.
ุงุณู…ุญูˆุง ู„ู†ุง ุงู„ุขู† ุฃู† ู†ู†ุธุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ุฃู…ูˆุฑ ุชุฌุฏ ุฎุทุฃ ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ู…ุน ู†ูุณู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู‡ู†ุง ุฏุนูˆู†ุง ู†ุจุฏุฃ ู…ุน
ู…ุง ู…ู† ุดุฃู†ู‡ ุฃู† ูŠุฌุนู„ ุฃูŠ ูˆุงุญุฏ ูƒุงุฑู‡ ู„ุชู„ู‚ูŠ ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ: ุฃุนู†ูŠ ู„ุนุจุฉ 388 ุจูŠู† ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช
prinos ูˆprisisุŒ schinos ูˆschisis. ุฃู†ุช ุชู‚ูˆู„ ุฃู† ูŠู…ูƒู†ูƒ ุฃู† ุชุฑู‰ ูƒูŠู ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ู‡ุฐุง ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉุŒ
ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฐู„ูƒ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู…ู†ูุตู„ุชูŠู†. ูˆููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ู‚ุทุฉุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ุŒ ุฃู†ุง ู„ุง ุชุฒุงู„ ููŠ
ุดูƒุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุŒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒู†ุช ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุธุฑ ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ู…ุฑ (ู„ู‡ุฐุง ูˆู„ู‚ุฏ ุดุงู‡ุฏุช ุจู†ูุณูŠ ุงู„ุตุนูˆุจุฉ)ุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง
ู„ุง ุงุณุชุดุงุฑุฉ ุนุฏุฏ ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุญูˆู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ูˆุถูˆุนุŒ ูˆุทู„ุจ ู…ู†ู‡ู… ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ
prinos ูˆpriseinุŒ ูˆูƒูŠู ุณูŠุชุฑุฌู… schinos ุงู„ุดุฌุฑุฉุŒ ูˆูƒูŠู schisisุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ูˆุง ุงู†ู‡ู… ู„ุง ูŠุนุฑููˆู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉ prinos ูˆschinosุŒ ูˆุทู„ุจ ู…ู†ูŠ ุฃู† ุชุจูŠู† ู„ู‡ู… ุฃู† ุงู„ุฃุดุฌุงุฑุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู† ู†ุฑู‰ ู…ุง ุฏุนุง ู„ู‡ู…ุŒ
ูˆุฃู†ุง ููŠ ู…ุฑุฉ ูˆุงุญุฏุฉ (ู„ู„ุงุทู„ุงุน ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ูˆุนุฒูŠุฒ ุตุงู„ุญ) ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูˆุถุฉ ุนู„ูŠู‡ู… ู‚ุทุน ุงู„ุฃุดุฌุงุฑ
ุงู„ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉ. ูˆุงุญุฏ ู…ู†ู‡ู… ุซู… ู‚ุงู„ุŒ ุงู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ู…ุน ุจุฃูŠ ู‚ุฏุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ูŠู‚ูŠู† ุฅุนุทุงุก ุงุณู…
ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุฃูŠ ุดูŠุก ู„ู… ูŠุฑุฏ ุฐูƒุฑู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุŒ ูˆู…ู†ุฐ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ุญูŠู†ุŒ ุฅุฐุง ูˆุงุญุฏ ูƒุงู†
ููŠ ุงู„ุฎุณุงุฑุฉุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ูƒุงู† ุนุฑุถุฉ ู„ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุณุฑูŠุงู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ุจุฏู„ุง ู…ู† ูˆุงุญุฏุฉุŒ
ูˆุฐู‡ุจ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ู‚ูˆู„ุŒ ุจุฃู† ุจุนุถ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ู„ู„ุบุงูŠุฉ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ุฃุญูƒู… ู„ุง ุชุชุฑุฌู…. “ุฅุฐุงุŒ
ุซู…ุŒ” ูˆู‚ุงู„ “ูŠู…ูƒู†ูƒ ุฃู† ูŠูˆุฑุฏ ุฃูŠ ูู‚ุฑุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ุญูŠุซ
schinos ู‡ูˆ ู…ุฐูƒูˆุฑุŒ ุฃูˆ prinosุŒ ูˆุณูˆู ุชุฌุฏ ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ ูƒู†ุช ุชุณุนู‰ุŒ ุฌู†ุจุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุฌู†ุจ ู…ุน ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ู‡ุง
ู†ูุณ ุงู„ุตูˆุชุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ุนุฏู… ุฐูƒุฑู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู†ุญู† ุฃูŠุถุง ู„ุง ูŠุนุฑููˆู† ุฐู„ูƒ. “ู‡ุฐู‡ุŒ ุฅุฐู†ุŒ ู…ุง
ูŠุฌุฑูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุนุจุฑุงู†ูŠูŠู† ุงู† ุฃุนุทูŠู‡ ู„ุฌุฃุชุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ุนู„ู‰ ุจูŠู†ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ุญุฐุฑุฉ
ู…ู† ุชุฃูƒูŠุฏ ู…ุง ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ุฃูˆ ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุฃูŠ ู…ุฑุงุณู„ุงุช ู„ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุณุฑุญูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ
ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ. ุจูƒ ุงู„ุณุจุจ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฃูƒูŠุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู† ู„ูŠุณ ู‡ู†ุงูƒุŒ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุญุชู…ู„ ุฃู† ุชุนุฑู ุฃู†ุช ู†ูุณูƒ.

7.
ูˆุนู„ุงูˆุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ุฃุชุฐูƒุฑ ุฃู†ู†ูŠ ุณู…ุนุช ู…ู† ุชุนู„ู… ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ููŠู…ุง ุจูŠู†ู‡ุง ู„ูŠูƒูˆู† ุงุจู† ุฑุฌู„
ุญูƒูŠู…ุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ู‚ุฏ ุชู… ุชุฏุฑูŠุจู‡ู… ุฎุตูŠุตุง ู„ุฎู„ุงูุฉ ูˆุงู„ุฏู‡ุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูƒุงู† ู„ูŠ ู…ุน ุงู„ุฌู…ุงุน ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ
ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ูˆุถูˆุนุงุชุŒ ูˆุฃุณู…ุงุก ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุดูŠูˆุฎุŒ ุชู…ุงู…ุง ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ุงู†ู‡ ู„ู… ู†ุฑูุถ ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุงุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง
ุชุญุฏุซ ููŠ ุฌูŠุฑูŠู…ูŠุงุณ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู†ุญูˆ ุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠ: “ุฅู† ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ุฌุนู„ ุงู„ูŠูƒ ู…ุซู„
Zedekias ูˆAchiabุŒ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ู… ู…ู„ูƒ ุจุงุจู„ ุชูุญู… ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุงุฑุŒ ู„ุธู„ู… ูุนู„ูˆุง ููŠ ุงุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„
“.3035 ุฌูŠุฑูŠ). ุงู„ุชุงุณุน ูˆุงู„ุนุดุฑูˆู†. 22 ุŒ 23. ูƒูŠูุŒ ุฅุฐู†ุŒ ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ู„ู…ุฑุก ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ู…ู†ุดูˆุฑ
ุฅุฑุจุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุงู„ู…ู„ุงูƒุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฅูŠุฌุงุฑ ููŠ ู‚ุทุนุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŸ ูˆุงู„ุฌูˆุงุจ ู‡ูˆุŒ ุงู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุดูŠุงุก ูƒุงู†ุช ุชู†ุจุฃ
ูŠุณุช ู…ู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุนุงู„ู…ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู…ู† ุญูƒู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุจุนุฏ ุฑุญูŠู„ ุนู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุนุงู„ู…ุŒ ู„ู„ุญุตูˆู„ ุนู„ู‰ ูƒู…ุง ุฃู†
ุณูŠุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ุงู„ุดุฑูŠุฑ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠู‚ูˆู„: “ูŠุง ุณูŠุฏูŠ ูŠุจุทุฆ ู‚ุฏูˆู…ู‡”ุŒ ูˆุญุชู‰ ูŠุนุทูŠ ู„ู†ูุณู‡
ู…ุง ูŠุตู„ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุณูƒุฑุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฃูƒู„ ูˆุงู„ุดุฑุจ ู…ุน ุงู„ุณูƒุงุฑูŠุŒ ูˆุงู„ุถุฑุจ ูˆุฒู…ู„ุงุฆู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ูˆุธููŠู†ุŒ ูŠุชุนูŠู†
ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุฌูŠุฆู‡ “ู‚ุงุทุนู‡ ุฅุฑุจุงุŒ ูˆุชุนูŠูŠู† ู„ู‡ ู†ุตูŠุจู‡ ู…ุน ุงู„ูƒุงูุฑูŠู† “3036ย  ู„ูˆู‚ุง ุงู„ุซุงู†ูŠ
ุนุดุฑ. 45 ุŒ 46. ุจู„ ุญุชู‰ ุงู„ู…ู„ุงุฆูƒุฉ ุนูŠู† ู„ู…ุนุงู‚ุจุฉ ุณูˆู ุชู†ุฌุฒ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุดูŠุงุก (ูู‚ุท ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุณุชุฎูุถ
ุงุฑุจุง ุณุชูŠูˆุงุฑุฏ ุงู„ุดุฑุณ ู…ู† ุฃู† ู…ุฑูˆุฑ) ุนู„ู‰ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ููŠ ุงู„ูˆุงู‚ุน ุฏุนุง
ุดูŠูˆุฎุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุชุนุงู‚ุจูˆุง ุนู„ู‰ ุฅุฏุงุฑุฉ ู‚ูŠุงุฏุชู‡ู… ุดุฑูŠุฑุฉ. ุงุญุฏุฉ ุณูˆู ูŠุฑู‰ ุงุฑุจุง ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูƒุงู† ู„ู‡
ุดู…ุนุงู†ูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ุดุฑุณุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูƒุงู† ู‚ุฏ ุญูƒู… ูˆุงุถุญ ูƒุงุฐุจุฉุŒ ุฅุฏุงู†ุฉ ุงู„ุฃุจุฑูŠุงุกุŒ
ูˆุชุฑูƒ ุงู„ู…ุฐู†ุจูŠู† ุฃุญุฑุงุฑุง ุ›3037 ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง 52 ุŒ 53. ูˆุขุฎุฑ ุณูˆู ุชู…ุฒู‚ ููŠ ู‚ุทุนุฉ ู„ู‡ ู…ู† ู†ุณู„ ูƒู†ุนุงู†ุŒ
ูˆู„ูŠุณ ู…ู† ูŠู‡ูˆุฐุงุŒ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ู… ุฌู…ุงู„ ู‚ุฏ ุฎุฏุนุŒ ูˆู‚ู„ุจู‡ ุดู‡ูˆุฉ ู‚ุฏ ู„ุง ุชุณุชู‚ูŠู….3038 ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง 56.

8.
ูˆูƒู†ุช ุฃุนุฑู ุขุฎุฑ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุงู„ ุนู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุชู‚ุงู„ูŠุฏ ุดูŠูˆุฎ ู…ุซู„ ู…ุง ูŠู„ูŠ: ุฃู†ู‡ู… ุชุธุงู‡ุฑูˆุง
ู„ู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ุฃุณุฑุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ูŠุฃู…ู„ูˆู† ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ู…ุฌูŠุก ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ู„ุชุญุฑูŠุฑู‡ู… ู…ู† ู†ูŠุฑ ุฃุนุฏุงุฆู‡ู…ุŒ
ูˆุฃู†ู‡ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ุชูุณุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆุงุถุญ ุฃู† ุงู„ุฃู…ูˆุฑ ุงู„ู…ุชุนู„ู‚ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญุŒ… ูˆุญุชู‰ ุงู†ู‡ู… ุฎุฏุนูˆุง
ุฒูˆุฌุงุชู‡ู… ู…ู† ู…ูˆุงุทู†ูŠู‡ู….3039 ูˆุขุฎุฑูˆู†
sigillatim
utrumque
ููŠ incidebat quamcunque mulieremุŒ ูˆุขุฎุฑูˆู† ุชุณูˆู‰ vitium
afferre cupiebat
ุŒ ุงู„ู…ู†ุธู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ูŠุฉ
ู„ู„ุชุนู„ูŠู…
secreto affirmasse ุณูŠุจูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุฏูŠูˆ ู…ุณู†ุฏ ู‡ ุณูˆ semine progignere Christum. Hinc ู…ุชุฏุฑุจ gignendi
Christum decepta mulier
ุŒ
ูุฑูŠุฏ ู…ู† ู†ูˆุนู‡
copiam decipienti
faciebat
ุŒ ูˆุขุฎุฑูˆู† civium ูƒุฐุง uxores
seniores stuprabant Achiab

ุขุฎุฑูˆู†
Sedekias. ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุณุจุจ ูู‡ูˆ ุฃู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ุงู„ู…ูƒุงู„ู…ุงุช ูˆุงุญุฏุฉ “ุดู…ุนุงู†ูŠ
ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…ุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุงูŠุงู… ุดุฑูŠุฑุฉ”ุŒ ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„ ู„ู„ุขุฎุฑ “ุŒ ู‡ูƒุฐุง ูƒู†ุชู… ู‚ุฏ ุชุนุงู…ู„ุช ู…ุน ุจู†ูŠ
ุฅุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุจู†ุงุช ูŠู‡ูˆุฐุง ู„ู† ุชู„ุชุฒู… ุจูƒ ู…ู† ุดุฑ.”

9.
ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฑุจู…ุง ู„ู‡ุฐุง ุณูˆู ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูƒู…ุŒ ุซู… ู„ู…ุงุฐุง ู‡ูˆ “ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ” ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ ูˆุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ุŒ
ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุชู‚ูˆู„ุŒ ู…ู† ู†ุงุญูŠุฉ ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ ุจู†ุณุจุฉ ุชู‚ู„ูŠุฏ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุตุŸ ูˆุงู„ุฌูˆุงุจ
ู‡ูˆุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ุง ุฃุฎูุช ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูุฉ ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ููŠ ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงุทุน ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุญุชูˆูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃูŠ ูุถูŠุญุฉ ุถุฏ
ุดูŠูˆุฎ ูˆุงู„ุญูƒุงู… ูˆุงู„ู‚ุถุงุฉุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ูŠู…ูƒู†ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุจุนุถ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ู‚ุฏ ุชู… ุงู„ุญูุงุธ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจุงุช
uncanonical (ุงุจูˆูƒุฑูŠูุง)ุŒ ูˆูƒู…ุซุงู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ุชุฃุฎุฐ ู‚ุตุฉ ุฑูˆูŠุช ุนู† ุฅุดุนูŠุงุกุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ
ูŠูƒูู„ู‡ุง ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุจูˆู„ุณ ุงู„ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุนุจุฑุงู†ูŠูŠู†ุŒ ูˆู‡ูŠ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ููŠ ุฃูŠ ู…ู† ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ูƒุชุจ
ุงู„ุนู…ูˆู…ูŠุฉ. ูˆุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ู„ูƒุงุชุจ ู…ู† ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุจูˆู„ุณ ุงู„ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุนุจุฑุงู†ูŠูŠู†ุŒ ููŠ ุณูŠุงู‚ ุญุฏูŠุซู‡ ุนู†
ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุกุŒ ูˆู…ุง ุนุงู†ุงู‡ุŒ ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„: “ู„ู‚ุฏ ุชุนุฑุถ ู„ุฑุดู‚ ุจุงู„ุญุฌุงุฑุฉุŒ ูˆูƒุงู†ูˆุง ู…ู†ุดูˆุฑ ุงุฑุจุงุŒ
ูุฅู†ู‡ู… ุฐุจุญุช ุจุญุฏ ุงู„ุณูŠู. “3040 ุนุจ. ุงู„ุญุงุฏูŠ ุนุดุฑ. 37. ู„ู…ู† ูˆุฃุณุฃู„ุŒ ู‡ู„ ู…ู†ุดูˆุฑ “ุงุฑุจุง”
ูŠุดูŠุฑ (ู„ู…ู† ุนุจุงุฑุงุช ุบูŠุฑ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…ุฉุŒ ู„ุง ุชู‚ุชุตุฑ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ูˆุฌุฏุช ุฃูŠุถุง ููŠ
ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู‡ูˆ ู‚ุงู„ ููŠ ุตูŠุบุฉ ุงู„ุฌู…ุนุŒ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฑุบู… ู…ู† ุฃู†ู‡ ูŠุดูŠุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุดุฎุต ูˆุงุญุฏ ูˆู„ูƒู†)ุŸ
ูˆู†ุญู† ู†ุนู„ู… ุงู„ุขู† ุฌูŠุฏ ุฌุฏุง ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุชู‚ู„ูŠุฏ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุงู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุฅุดุนูŠุงุก ูƒุงู† ู…ู†ุดูˆุฑ ุงุฑุจุงุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง
ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ู…ู„ูู‚ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ุฑุจู…ุง ูƒุงู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ู‚ุฏ ู‚ุตุฏ ุงู„ุนุจุซ ุจู‡ุงุŒ ุฅุฏุฎุงู„ ุจุนุถ
ุงู„ุนุจุงุฑุงุช ูˆุงุถุญ ุบูŠุฑ ุตุญูŠุญุŒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‚ุฏ ูŠูƒูˆู† ู…ู† ุชุดูˆูŠู‡ ุงู„ู‚ูŠุช ุนู„ู‰ ูˆุฌู‡ ุงู„ุนู…ูˆู….

ูˆู…ุน
ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ุจุนุถ ู…ู† ุฌุงู†ุจ ูˆุงุญุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุตุนุจ ุฃู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุฌุฉ ู‚ุฏ ุชู„ุฌุฃ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฑุฃูŠ ุฃูˆู„ุฆูƒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุฑูุถูˆู†
ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ู… ูŠุชู… ุจูˆู„ ุ› ุถุฏู‡ ูˆู„ุง ุจุฏ ู„ูŠ ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ุญุฌุฌ
ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ู„ุฅุซุจุงุช ุฃู†ู‡ ู…ู† ุจูˆู„.3041 [ุงู†ุธุฑ ุงู„ุญุงุดูŠุฉ ุฃุนู„ุงู‡ุŒ
p. 239
ุณ.] ููŠ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ุงู„ุญุงุถุฑ ูˆุณูˆู ูŠูˆุฑุฏ ู…ู† ุฅู†ุฌูŠู„ ูŠุณูˆุน ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ู…ุง ูŠุดู‡ุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงู†ุจูŠุงุกุŒ ุฌู†ุจุง
ุฅู„ู‰ ุฌู†ุจ ู…ุน ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูˆูŠุดูŠุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† 389ูˆู‡ูŠ ู„ูŠุณุช ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู…ุŒ ู„ุฃู†
ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃูŠุถุง ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ูุถูŠุญุฉ ุงู„ุธุงู„ู…ุฉ ุถุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุถุงุฉ ููŠ ุงุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„. ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ู…ุฎู„ุตู†ุง ุชุดุบูŠู„
ุจุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠ: “ูˆูŠู„ ู„ูƒู…ุŒ ูˆุงู„ูƒุชุจุฉ ูˆุงู„ูุฑูŠุณูŠูŠู†ุŒ ู„ุฃู† ุงู„ู…ู†ุงูู‚ูŠู† ุงู†ุชู… ุจู†ุงุก ู‚ุจูˆุฑ
ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุกุŒ ูˆู…ู‚ุจู„ุงุช ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู‚ุจูˆุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุตุงู„ุญูŠู†ุŒ ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„ุŒ ู„ูˆ ูƒู†ุง ููŠ ุฃูŠุงู… ุขุจุงุฆู†ุง ู„ู…ุง ูƒู†ุง
ู‚ุฏ ูŠู†ู„ู‡ุง ู†ุตูŠุจ ู…ุนู‡ู… ููŠ ุฏู… ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก. ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุณุจุจ ูŠูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุดู‡ูˆุฏ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุงู†ุชู… ุงู†ูุณูƒู…
ุงู†ูƒู… ุฃุจู†ุงุก ู…ู†ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุชู„ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก. ุงู…ู„ุฃ ุงู†ุชู… ุญุชู‰ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ุญูŠู† ุงู„ุชุฏุจูŠุฑ ุขุจุงุฆูƒู….
ุงู„ุซุนุงุจูŠู† ูŠูŠุŒ ุงู†ุชู… ุฌูŠู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงูุงุนูŠุŒ ูƒูŠู ูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู†ุชู… ู‡ุฑุจุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุฏุงู†ุฉ ู…ู† ุฌู‡ู†ู…ุŸ ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง
ุงู„ุณุจุจุŒ ู‡ุง ุฃู†ุง ุฃุฑุณู„ ู„ูƒู… ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆุงู„ุญูƒู…ุงุกุŒ ูˆุงู„ูƒุชุจุฉ ุ› ูˆุจุนุถู‡ู… ู‚ุชู„ุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุชู… ุณูˆู ูŠุตู„ุจุŒ
ูˆุงู„ุจุนุถ ู…ู†ู‡ู… ูŠู‚ูˆู… ุงู†ุชู… ุขูุฉ ุจูƒ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุนุงุจุฏุŒ ูˆุงุถุทู‡ุงุฏู‡ู… ู…ู† ู…ุฏูŠู†ุฉ ุงู„ู‰ ู…ุฏูŠู†ุฉ: ู‡ุฐุง ู‚ุฏ
ูŠุฃุชูŠ ุนู„ูŠูƒู… ูƒู„ ุฏู… ุณููƒ ุงู„ุตุงู„ุญูŠู† ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถุŒ ู…ู† ุฏู… ู‡ุงุจูŠู„ ุงู„ุจุงุฑ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุฏู… ุฒูƒุฑูŠุงุŒ ุงุจู†
Barachias ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุงู†ุชู… ุจุฐุจุญ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู‡ูŠูƒู„ ูˆุงู„ู…ุฐุจุญ. ุงู„ุญู‚ ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูƒู…ุŒ ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงู…ูˆุฑ
ุชุฃุชูŠ ุจู†ุงุก ุนู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฌูŠู„. “ูˆู…ุง ูŠู„ูŠ ู‡ูˆ ู…ู† ุงู„ุชูŠู†ูˆุฑ ู†ูุณู‡: ” ูŠุง ุฃูˆุฑุดู„ูŠู…ุŒ
ุงู„ู‚ุฏุณุŒ ุงู†ุช ุงู„ุชูŠ
killest ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุกุŒ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ู… stonest ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุฑุณู„ ุงู„ูŠูƒุŒ ูˆูƒู… ุฃูˆุฏ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุชุฌู…ุน ุงู„ุฃุทูุงู„ ุฎุงุตุชูƒ ู…ุนุงุŒ ุญุชู‰ ูˆุฅู†
ูƒุงู†
gathereth ุฏุฌุงุฌุฉ ู„ู‡ุง ุงู„ุฏุฌุงุฌ ุชุญุช ุฌู†ุงุญูŠู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุงู†ุชู… ู„ู†! ู‡ุง ุจูŠุชูƒ ู‡ูˆ ุชุฑูƒ ู„ูƒู… ู…ู‚ูุฑ
“.3042 ู…ุงุช. ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ ูˆุงู„ุนุดุฑูˆู†. 29-38.

ุงู„ุขู†
ุฏุนูˆู†ุง ู†ุฑู‰ ุงุฐุง ูƒู†ุง ููŠ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุงุช ู„ุง ูŠุถุทุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงุณุชู†ุชุงุฌุŒ ุฃู†ู‡ ููŠ ุญูŠู† ุฃู†
ุงู„ู…ู†ู‚ุฐ ูˆูŠุนุทูŠ ูˆุตูุง ุตุญูŠุญุง ู…ู†ู‡ู…ุŒ ุฃูŠ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ุชุซุจุช ู…ุง ูŠุฑูˆูŠ ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุชูŠ
ูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง. ู„ุฃู†ู‡ู… ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุจู†ุงุก ู‚ุจูˆุฑ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆู…ู‚ุจู„ุงุช ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู‚ุจูˆุฑ ู…ู†
ุงู„ุตุงู„ุญูŠู†ุŒ ูˆุฅุฏุงู†ุฉ ุงู„ุฌุฑุงุฆู… ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุฑุชูƒุจ ุถุฏ ุขุจุงุฆู‡ู… ุงู„ุตุงู„ุญูŠู† ูˆุงู„ุงู†ุจูŠุงุกุŒ ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„:
“ู„ูˆ ูƒู†ุง ููŠ ุฃูŠุงู… ุขุจุงุฆู†ุงุŒ ูˆู†ุญู† ู„ู… ูŠูƒู†
partakers ู…ุนู‡ู… ููŠ ุฏู…
ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก “.3043 ู…ุงุช. ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ ูˆุงู„ุนุดุฑูˆู†. 30. ููŠ ุฏู… ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ู…ุงุŒ ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ุฃูŠ ูˆุงุญุฏ
ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูŠุŸ ู„ู„ุญุตูˆู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃูŠู† ูŠู…ูƒู†ู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ุฌุฏ ุฃูŠ ุดูŠุก ู…ู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ุจูŠู„ ุฎุทูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุฅุดุนูŠุงุกุŒ ุฃูˆ
ุฅุฑู…ูŠุงุŒ ุฃูˆ ุฃูŠ ู…ู† ุงุซู†ูŠ ุนุดุฑุŒ ุฃูˆ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ุŸ ุซู… ุนู† ุฒูƒุฑูŠุง ุงุจู†
BarachiasุŒ
ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุชู„ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู‡ูŠูƒู„ ูˆุงู„ู…ุฐุจุญุŒ ูˆุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ุชุนู„ู… ู…ู† ุงู„ุณูŠุฏ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ูู‚ุทุŒ ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุฎู„ุงู ุฐู„ูƒ
ู…ุน ุงู„ุนู„ู… ุฃู†ู‡ ู…ู† ุฃูŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ. ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุณุจุจ ุงุนุชู‚ุฏ ุงู†ู‡ ู„ูŠุณ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู…ูƒู† ุงู„ุงูุชุฑุงุถ
ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ู…ู† ุฃู†ู‡ู… ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ู‚ุฏ ุณู…ุนุชู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉุŒ ูˆุญูƒุงู… ูˆุดูŠูˆุฎุŒ ุงุชุฎุฐ ุจุนูŠุฏุง ุนู† ูƒู„ ุงู„ู†ุงุณ
ุงู„ู…ู‚ุทุน ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุฏ ูŠุฌุนู„ู‡ู… ููŠ ุญุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุชุดูƒูŠูƒ ููŠ ุตููˆู ุงู„ุดุนุจุŒ ูˆู†ุญู† ุจุญุงุฌุฉ ู„ุง ุนุฌุจุŒ ุฅุฐู†ุŒ
ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฌู‡ุงุฒ ุงู„ุดุฑ ู…ู† ุดูŠูˆุฎ ูุงุฌุฑ ุถุฏ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง ุตุญูŠุญุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุชู… ุงุฎูุงุคู‡ุง
ูˆุฅุฒุงู„ุชู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ ุฃู†ูุณู‡ู… ู„ูŠุณ ุจุนูŠุฏุง ุฌุฏุง ุนู† ุงู„ู…ุญุงู…ูŠ ู…ู†
ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุดูŠูˆุฎ.

ููŠ
ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุฑุณู„ ุฃูŠุถุงุŒ ุณุชูŠูู†ุŒ ููŠ ุดู‡ุงุฏุชู‡ ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„: “ู…ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ู„ู…
ุขุจุงุคูƒู… ุงุถุทู‡ุงุฏุŸ ูˆู„ุฏูŠู‡ู… ู‚ุชู„ู‡ู… ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ุฃุธู‡ุฑุช ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ู…ุฌูŠุก ูˆุงุญุฏ ูู‚ุทุŒ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูƒู†ุชู… ู‚ุฏ
ุชู… ุงู„ุขู† ุงู„ุฎูˆู†ุฉ ูˆุงู„ู‚ุชู„ุฉ “.3044 ุงู„ุฃูุนุงู„ ุงู„ุณุงุจุน. 52. ุณุชูŠูู† ุฃู† ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุนู†
ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉุŒ ูุฅู† ูƒู„ ูˆุงุญุฏ ูŠุนุชุฑู ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุญุตู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุฑุณู„ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุณุชุญูŠู„ ุฃู† ุชุธู‡ุฑ
ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุจ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุนู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠู… ูƒูŠู ู…ุน ุฃูŠ ุนุฏุงู„ุฉ ุงู†ู‡ ูŠู„ู‚ูŠ ุงู„ู„ูˆู… ุนู„ู‰ ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุงุถุทู‡ุงุฏ
ูˆู‚ุชู„ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุขุจุงุก ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุนุชู‚ุฏูˆู† ุฃู† ู„ูŠุณ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญุŒ ูˆุจูˆู„ุณุŒ ููŠ ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ุจูˆู„ุณ
ุงู„ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ู‰ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู‡ู„ ุชุณุงู„ูˆู†ูŠูƒูŠุŒ ูˆูŠุดู‡ุฏ ู‡ุฐุง ุจุฎุตูˆุต ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ: “ู„ุงู†ูƒู… ุงูŠู‡ุง
ุงู„ุงุฎูˆุฉุŒ ูˆุฃุตุจุญ ู…ู† ุฃุชุจุงุน ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ููŠ ูŠู‡ูˆุฏุง ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ู‡ูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุณูŠุญ ูŠุณูˆุน ู„ุงู†ูƒู… ุฃูŠุถุง
ุนุงู†ู‰ ู…ุซู„ ุฃุดูŠุงุก ู…ู† ู…ูˆุงุทู†ูŠูƒู… ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉ ุจู‡ุงุŒ ุญุชู‰ ุฃู†ู‡ู… ู…ู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏุŒ ุณูˆุงุก ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ู‚ุชู„ูˆุง
ุงู„ุฑุจ ูŠุณูˆุน ูˆุฃู†ุจูŠุงุกู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆูŠูƒูˆู† ู„ู†ุง ุงุถุทู‡ุงุฏ ุ› ูŠุดุงุคูˆู† ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุชุชู†ุงูู‰ ู…ุน ุฌู…ูŠุน
ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ “.3045 1 ุชุณุงู„ูˆู†ูŠูƒูŠ. ุซุงู†ูŠุง. 14 ุŒ 15. ู…ุง ู‚ู„ุชู‡ ู‡ูˆุŒ ููŠ ุงุนุชู‚ุงุฏูŠุŒ ูƒุงููŠุฉ
ู„ุฅุซุจุงุช ุฃู†ู‡ ุณูŠูƒูˆู† ุดูŠุฆุง ุฑุงุฆุนุง ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ูƒุงู† ุตุญูŠุญุงุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‡ุฌูˆู… ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ ู…ู†
ุถุฑูˆุจ ูุงุฌุฑ ูƒุงู† ูุนู„ุง ุนู„ู‰ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุฃูˆู„ุฆูƒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ุดูŠูˆุฎุŒ ูˆูŠูƒุชุจ
ู…ู† ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฑูˆุญุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ู‚ุฏ ุญุฐู ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุญูƒุงู… ุณุฏูˆู…ุŒ3046 ุนูŠุณู‰. ุฃู†ุง. 10.
ูƒู…ุง ุฃู† ุงู„ุฑูˆุญ ู†ุฏุนูˆ ู„ู‡ู….

10.
ุงุนุชุฑุงุถูƒ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฏู… ู‡ูˆุŒ ุฃู†ู‡ ููŠ ูˆู‚ุช ูƒุชุงุจุฉ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุชู‚ุฑูŠุฑ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ูŠู‚ุงู„ ุฅู†ู‡ ุชู… ุงู„ุงุณุชูŠู„ุงุก
ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุงู„ุฑูˆุญุŒ ูˆู„ู‚ุฏ ุจูƒู‰ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุงู„ุญูƒู… ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุนุงุฏู„ุงุŒ ููŠ ุญูŠู† ุฃู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจุฉ ู„ู‡
ุนุงู„ู…ูŠุง ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุชู„ู‚ู‰ ุชุชู…ุซู„ ููŠ ุงู„ุชู†ุจุฃ ุชู…ุงู…ุง ุจุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ ุงู„ุฑุคู‰ ูˆุงู„ู…ู†ุงู…ุงุชุŒ
ูˆู…ู„ุงูƒุง ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุธู‡ุฑ ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃุจุฏุง ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ุงู„ู‡ุงู… ุงู„ู†ุจูˆูŠุฉ. ุฃู†ุช ูŠุจุฏูˆ ู„ูŠ ุฃู† ุชุฏูุน
ุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ุฌุฏุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุงู‡ุชู…ุงู… ู„ุนุจุงุฑุฉ “ูˆููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃุญูŠุงู† ุงู„ู†ุซุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุบูˆุงุตูŠู† ููŠ
ุงู„ุฃุฎู„ุงู‚ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ูƒู„ู… ููŠ ุงู„ุณุงุนุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุฉ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุงู„ุขุจุงุก ูˆุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„. “3047
ุนุจ. ุฃู†ุง. 1. ู‡ุฐุง ุตุญูŠุญ ู„ูŠุณ ูู‚ุท ููŠ ุงู„ุนุงู…ุŒ ูˆุฅู†ู…ุง ุฃูŠุถุง ู„ู„ุฃูุฑุงุฏ. ุฅุฐุง ูƒู†ุช ู„ุงุญุธุชุŒ ุณุชุฌุฏ
ุฃู† ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠุณูŠู† ู†ูุณู‡ ู‚ุฏ ุญุจุฐ ู…ุน ุงู„ุฃุญู„ุงู… ุงู„ุฅู„ู‡ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ู…ุธุงู‡ุฑ ู…ู„ุงุฆูƒูŠ ูˆ(ุงู„ู…ุจุงุดุฑุฉ) ุงู„ุชูŠ
ุงุจุชุบุงู‡ุง. ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ู„ูˆู‚ุช ุงู„ุญุงู„ูŠ ูŠูƒููŠ ุฃู† ุณุจูŠู„ ุงู„ู…ุซุงู„ ู…ุง ูŠุดู‡ุฏ ุงู„ู…ุชุนู„ู‚ุฉ ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ.
ุงู„ุฃุญู„ุงู… ู…ู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ู‡ูƒุฐุง: “ูˆุงู†ู‡ ุฌุงุก ู„ุชู…ุฑูŠุฑุŒ ููŠ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุชุตูˆุฑ
ู„ู„ู…ุงุดูŠุฉุŒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฑุฃูŠุชู‡ู… ุฃู…ุงู… ุนูŠู†ูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ู†ุงู…ุŒ ูˆู„ู…ุญ ูˆุงู„ูƒุจุงุด ูˆุงู„ู…ุงุนุฒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูƒุงู† – ู‚ูุฒ
ุนู†ุฏ ุงู„ุฃุบู†ุงู… ูˆุงู„ู…ุงุนุฒุŒ ูˆุงู„ุจูŠุถุงุก ุงู„ู…ุฑู‚ุทุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฃุฑู‚ุทุŒ ูˆ
grisledุŒ
ูˆุงู„ู…ู„ุงูƒ ู…ู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูƒู„ู… ูู‚ุงู„ ู„ูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ู†ุงู…ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„: ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ. ูˆู‚ู„ุช ู„ู‡: ู…ุง ู‡ูˆุŸุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„: ุงุฑูุน
ุนูŠู†ูŠูƒ ูˆู†ุฑู‰ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู…ุงุนุฒ ูˆุงู„ูƒุจุงุด ุงู„ู‚ูุฒ 390ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุบู†ู… ูˆุงู„ู…ุงุนุฒุŒ ุงู„ุจูŠุถุงุก ุงู„ู…ุฑู‚ุทุฉุŒ
ูˆุงู„ุฃุฑู‚ุทุŒ ูˆ
grisled: ู„ุฑุฃูŠุช ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐุง doeth ู„ุจู† ุงู„ูŠูƒุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ุธู‡ุฑ ุงู„ูŠูƒ ููŠ ู…ูƒุงู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ุญูŠุซ anointedst ุงู†ุช ู„ูŠ ุฃู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุนู…ูˆุฏุŒ ูˆู‡ู†ุงูƒ ู†ุฐุฑ vowedst
ู„ูŠ: ุงู„ุขู† ุชู†ุดุฃุŒ ูˆุงู„ุญุตูˆู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ูŠูƒ ุงู„ุฎุฑูˆุฌ ู…ู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถุŒ ูˆูŠุฑุฌุน ุงู„ู‰ ุฃุฑุถ ุนุดูŠุฑุชูƒ.
“3048 ุงู„ุฌู†ุฑุงู„ ุงู„ุญุงุฏูŠ ูˆุงู„ุซู„ุงุซูŠู†. 10-13.

ูˆูƒู…ุง
ุฃู† ุธู‡ูˆุฑ (ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‡ูˆ ุฃูุถู„ ู…ู† ู…ุฌุฑุฏ ุญู„ู…)ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ู†ูุณู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู†ุญูˆ ุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠ:
“ูˆูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ ุชุฑูƒุช ูˆุญุฏู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุชุตุงุฑุน ุฑุฌู„ ู…ุนู‡ ุญุชู‰ ูƒุณุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู…ุŒ ูˆุงู†ู‡ ูŠุฑู‰ ุงู†ู‡ ู„ูŠุณ
ุถุฏ ุณุงุฏุช ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู†ู‡ ู„ู…ุณ ู…ุฏู‰ ุงุชุณุงุน ูุฎุฐู‡ ุ› ูˆุงุชุณุงุน ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ ู†ู…ุง ุดุฏูŠุฏุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูุฎุฐ ุจูŠู†ู…ุง ูƒุงู†
ุชุตุงุฑุน ู…ุนู‡ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงุณู…ุญูˆุง ู„ูŠ ุฃู† ุฃุฐู‡ุจุŒ ู„ูŠูƒุณุฑ ุงู„ูŠูˆู…. ูˆู‚ุงู„: ู„ู† ุฃุณู…ุญ ู„ูƒ ุงู„ุฐู‡ุงุจุŒ
ูˆุจุงุฑูƒ ู„ูŠ ุฅู„ุง ุฃู†ุช. ูู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‡: ู…ุง ุงุณู…ูƒุŸุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„: ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‡: ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุงุณู…ูƒ
ูˆุฏุนุง ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ ู„ุง ุฃูƒุซุฑุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฅุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ุฎุงุตุชูƒ ุงุณู…: ู„ุงู†ุช ูŠู…ุชู„ูƒ ุณุงุฏุช ู…ุน
ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ูู† ู‚ูˆูŠุฉ ู…ุน ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ุŒ ูˆูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ ุทู„ุจ ู…ู†ู‡ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„: ู‚ู„ ู„ูŠ ุงุณู…ูƒ. ูˆู‚ุงู„ุŒ ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุณุจุจ
ู‡ูˆ ุงู† ุฏูˆุณุช ุฃู†ุช ุชุณุฃู„ ุจุนุฏ ุงุณู…ูŠุŸ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ุจุงุฑูƒู‡ ู‡ู†ุงูƒุŒ ูˆุฏุนุง ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ ุงุณู… ู…ูƒุงู† ุฑุคูŠุฉ
ุงู„ู„ู‡: ู„ุฃู†ูŠ ุฑุฃูŠุช ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุฌู‡ุง ู„ูˆุฌู‡ุŒ ูˆูŠุชู… ุงู„ุญูุงุธ ุนู„ู‰ ุญูŠุงุชูŠุŒ ูˆุงุฑุชูุนุช ุงู„ุดู…ุณุŒ ุนู†ุฏ ุฑุคูŠุฉ
ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู…ุฑุช ุจู‡ุง. “3049 ุงู„ุฌู†ุฑุงู„ ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซูˆู†. 24-31. ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ุชู†ุจุฃ ุฃูŠุถุง ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚
ุงู„ุงู„ู‡ุงู…ุŒ ู‡ูˆ ูˆุงุถุญ ู…ู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูู‚ุฑุฉ: “ูˆูŠุนู‚ูˆุจ ูˆุฏุนุง ุฃุจู†ุงุก ู‚ูˆู…ู‡ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„: ุงุฌู…ุน ุงู†ูุณูƒู…
ู…ุนุงุŒ ุฅู† ุฌุงุฒ ู„ูŠ ุฃู† ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูƒ ู…ุง ูŠุฌุจ ุญู„ุช ู„ูƒู… ููŠ ุงู„ุงูŠุงู… ุงู„ุงุฎูŠุฑุฉ. ุงุฌู…ุนูˆุง ุงู†ูุณูƒู… ู…ุนุงุŒ
ูˆูŠุณู…ุนุŒ ุงู†ุชู… ุงุจู†ุงุก ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจุŒ ูˆุงุตุบ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุงุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„ ูˆุงู„ุฏูƒ. ุฑูˆุจู†ุŒ ูˆุฃูˆู„ ุงู„ู…ูˆู„ุฏุŒ ู…ุง ุฃูˆุชูŠุช
ู…ู† ู‚ูˆุฉุŒ ูˆุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ู„ุฃูˆู„ุงุฏูŠุŒ ู…ู† ุงู„ุตุนุจ ุฃู† ูŠูˆู„ุฏุŒ ู…ู† ุงู„ุตุนุจ ูˆุงู„ุนู†ูŠุฏ. ุงู†ุช ุงู„ูˆุญุดูŠ ูŠุฑุชุŒ ู„ู…
ุชู†ุชู‡ ุชุบู„ูŠ ู…ุซู„ ุงู„ู…ุงุก ุ› ู„ุฃู† ุงู†ุช
wentest ุญุชู‰ ุงุจูˆูƒ ุณุฑูŠุฑ ุ› ุซู… ุงู†ุช defiledst ุงู„ุฃุฑูŠูƒุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุงู†ุช wentest ุชุตู„ “.3050 ุงู„ุฌู†ุฑุงู„ ุงู„ุชุงุณุน ูˆุงู„ุงุฑุจุนูˆู†. 1-4. ูˆู‡ูƒุฐุง ู…ุน ุจู‚ูŠุฉ:
ูƒุงู† ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ุงู„ู‡ุงู… ุฃู† ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ู†ุจูˆูŠุฉ ูˆุถูˆุญุงุŒ ูˆู†ุญู† ุจุญุงุฌุฉ ู„ุง ุนุฌุจุŒ ุฅุฐู†ุŒ ุงู† ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„
ุชู†ุจุฃ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃุญูŠุงู† ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ุงู„ู‡ุงู…ุŒ ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูˆุจุฎ ุดูŠูˆุฎ ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃุญูŠุงู†ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุชู‚ูˆู„ุŒ ู…ู†
ุงู„ุฃุญู„ุงู… ูˆุงู„ุฑุคู‰ุŒ ูˆุนู„ู‰ ู…ุฑุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ู…ู„ุงูƒ ุงู„ุธู‡ูˆุฑ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุนู†ู‡.

11.
ุจูƒ ุงุนุชุฑุงุถุงุช ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ู…ู†ุตูˆุต ุนู„ูŠู‡ุงุŒ ูƒู…ุง ูŠุจุฏูˆ ู„ูŠุŒ ู†ูˆุนุง ู…ุง ุจุงุทู„ุงุŒ ูˆุฏูˆู† ุฃู† ุชุตุจุญ ุฑูˆุญ
ุงู„ุชู‚ูˆู‰. ู„ุง ุฃุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ุฃูุนู„ ุฃูุถู„ ู…ู† ุงู‚ุชุจุณ ูƒู„ู…ุงุชูƒ ู„ู„ุบุงูŠุฉ: “ุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ุจุนุฏ ุฃู†
ุชุตุฑุฎ ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุดูƒู„ ุบูŠุฑ ุนุงุฏูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ูŠูƒุดู ู„ู‡ู… ููŠ ุจุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉ ู„ุง ุชู‚ู„ ู„ุง ุชุตุฏู‚ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ
ู„ู… ุชู„ุนุจ ุญุชู‰
Philistion ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ูƒุงุชุจ ู‚ุฏ ู„ุฌุฃุช ุฅู„ูŠู‡. ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ุŒ ุบูŠุฑ ุฑุงุถ ุนู† ุชูˆุจูŠุฎ ู„ู‡ู… ู…ู†
ุฎู„ุงู„ ุงู„ุฑูˆุญุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ูˆุถุนุช ุชู…ุฒูŠู‚ุงุŒ ูˆุทู„ุจ ู…ู†ู‡ู… ูุฑุฏูŠุง ุญูŠุซ ุดู‡ุฏ ู„ู‡ุง ุจุงู„ุฒู†ุงุŒ ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง
ูˆุงุญุฏ ู‚ุงู„: ‘ูˆุจู…ูˆุฌุจ ู‡ูˆู„ู… ุดุฌุฑุฉ’ (
prinos(ุฃุฌุงุจ ุจุฃู† ุงู„ู…ู„ุงูƒ ู‚ุฏ ุฑุฃูŠุชู‡ ุงุฑุจุง (prisein(ุ›)
ูˆุจุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉ ู…ู…ุงุซู„ุฉ ู‡ุฏุฏ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุงู„: ‘ูˆุจู…ูˆุฌุจ
mastich
ุดุฌุฑุฉ’ (
schinos)ุŒ ู…ุน ุฃู† ูŠุชู…ุฒู‚. “

ู‚ุฏ
ูŠูƒูˆู† ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุนู‚ูˆู„ ุฃู† ู†ู‚ุงุฑู†
Philistion ู…ุณุฑุญูŠุฉ ุงู„ูƒุงุชุจุŒ ุฅู„ู‰ ุญุฏ ู…ุง ู‚ุตุฉ ู‡ุฐุง ู…ุซู„ ูˆุงุญุฏุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠุชู… ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ
ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู„ูˆูƒุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ุณูˆู ุฃุนุชุฑู ู„ูƒ ู†ูุณูƒ ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ู…ูƒุชูˆุจุฉ ุจุดูƒู„
ุฌูŠุฏ. ู‡ู†ุง ู‡ูˆ ู…ุง ู†ู‚ุฑุฃ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ู„ูˆูƒ:

“ุซู…
ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุธู‡ุฑุช ุงู…ุฑุฃุชุงู† ุงู„ุชูŠ ูƒุงู†ุช ุงู„ุนุงู‡ุฑุงุช ุฃู…ุงู… ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ูˆู‚ูุช ุฃู…ุงู…ู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู…ุฑุฃุฉ ูˆุงุญุฏุฉ ูˆู‚ุงู„ุŒ
ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ูŠุŒ ูŠุง ุณูŠุฏูŠุŒ ุฃู†ุง ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ูŠุณูƒู† ููŠ ู…ู†ุฒู„ ูˆุงุญุฏุŒ ูˆูƒู†ุง ุชุณู„ูŠู…ู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ู…ู†ุฒู„.
ูˆุงู†ู‡ ุฌุงุก ุฃู† ูŠู…ุฑุŒ ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ ุจุนุฏ ุฃู† ุชู… ุชุณู„ูŠู…ู‡ุง ู„ูŠุŒ ุฃู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุฑุฃุฉ ู‚ุฏ ุณู„ู…ุช
ุฃูŠุถุง: ูˆูƒู†ุง ู…ุนุงุŒ ูˆู„ูŠุณ ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุงุญุฏ ููŠ ู…ู†ุฒู„ู†ุง ุจุงุณุชุซู†ุงุก ุงุซู†ูŠู† ู…ู†ุงุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุฑุฃุฉ ุทูู„
ู„ู‚ูˆุง ุญุชูู‡ู… ููŠ ุงู„ู„ูŠู„ุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุบุดุงู‡. ูˆุฅู†ู‡ุง ู†ุดุฃุช ููŠ ู…ู†ุชุตู ุงู„ู„ูŠู„ุŒ ูˆุฃุฎุฐูˆุง ุงุจู†ูŠ ู…ู†
ุฐุฑุงุนูŠ. ุฎุงุฏู…ุฉ ู…ู„ูƒูƒ ูˆูŠู†ุงู…ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ุช ุงู†ู‡ุง ูˆุถุนุช ุฐู„ูƒ ููŠ ุตุฏุฑู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุถุนุช ุทูู„ู‡ุง ู…ูŠุชุง ููŠ ุตุฏุฑูŠุŒ
ูˆุฃู†ุง ู†ุดุฃุช ููŠ ุงู„ุตุจุงุญ ู„ุงุนุทุงุก ุทูู„ูŠ ูŠู…ุตุŒ ูˆูƒุงู† ุงู„ู…ูˆุชู‰ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒู†ุช ู‚ุฏ ู†ุธุฑุช ููŠู‡ ููŠ
ุงู„ุตุจุงุญุŒ ู‡ุงุŒ ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุงุจู†ูŠ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃู†ุง ู„ู… ุชุญู…ู„ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ุช ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ูƒู„ุง ุ› ุงู„ู‚ุชู„ู‰ ู‡ูˆ
ุงุจู†ูƒุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุนูŠุดูˆู† ู‡ูˆ ุงุจู†ูŠุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑุŒ ู„ุง ุ› ุงู„ู…ุนูŠุดุฉ ู‡ูˆ ุงุจู†ูŠุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ู…ูŠุช
ู‡ูˆ ุงุจู†ูƒ. ูˆุจุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠ ูุฅู†ู‡ุง ูƒู„ู… ู‚ุจู„ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ. ุซู… ู‚ุงู„ ู„ู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ุฃู†ุช ุชู‚ูˆู„ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู‡ูˆ ุงุจู†ูŠ ุฃู†ู‡
ุญูŠ ู‡ูˆุŒ ูˆุงุจู†ูƒ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ูˆุชู‰: ูˆุงู†ุช
sayestุŒ ูƒู„ุง ุ› ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงุจู†ูƒ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ูˆุชู‰ุŒ ูˆุงุจู†ูŠ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุญูŠ. ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ุฃุญุถุฑ ู„ูŠ
ุณูŠูุงุŒ ูˆุฃุญุถุฑูˆุง ุงู„ุณูŠู ู‚ุจู„ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ. ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ุชู‚ุณูŠู… ุงู„ุฃุทูุงู„ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุนูŠุดูˆู† ููŠ
ุงู„ุจู„ุฏูŠู†ุŒ ูˆุชุนุทูŠ ู„ู„ู†ุตู ูˆุงุญุฏุฉุŒ ูˆู†ุตู ุฅู„ู‰ ุบูŠุฑู‡ุงุŒ ุซู… ูƒู„ู… ุงู„ู…ุฑุฃุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุนูŠุด ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุทูู„
ูƒุงู† ู„ู„ู…ู„ูƒ (ู„ู…ุนูŠู‡ ุชุงู‚ ุจุนุฏ ุงุจู†ู‡ุง)ุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ุช: ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ูŠุŒ ูŠุง ุณูŠุฏูŠุŒ ูŠุนุทูŠู‡ุง ูŠุนูŠุด ุงู„ุทูู„ุŒ
ูˆุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ ุงุฐุจุญ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุขุฎุฑูŠู† ู‚ุงู„ูˆุงุŒ ูู„ุชูƒู† ูŠุณุช ู…ู„ูƒูƒ ูˆู„ุง ุงู„ุฃู„ุบุงู…ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†
ุชู‚ุณูŠู…ู‡ุงุŒ ุซู… ุงุฌุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ุŒ ุฃุนุท ุงู„ุทูู„ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุฃุนุทู‡ุง ู„ู„ุทูู„ ูŠุนูŠุดุŒ ูˆุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ
ู„ูŠุณุช ููŠ ุงุฐุจุญ ุนู„ูŠู‡: ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ูˆู‡ูŠ ุฃู… ู„ุฐู„ูƒ. ูุณู…ุน ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„ ู…ู† ุญูƒู… ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูƒุงู†
ูŠุญูƒู…ุŒ ูˆุงู†ู‡ุง ุชุฎุดู‰ ู…ู† ู…ูˆุงุฌู‡ุฉ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ: ู„ุฃู†ู‡ู… ุฑุฃูˆุง ุฃู† ุญูƒู…ุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆูƒุงู† ู„ู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…
ุงู„ุญูƒู… “.3051 1 ู…ู„ูˆูƒ ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ. 16-28.

ู„ุฃู†ู†ุง
ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู†ุช ุงู„ุญุฑูŠุฉ ููŠ ุฃู† ูŠุชูƒู„ู… ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุณุจูŠู„ ูŠุณุฎุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ููŠ ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ููŠ
ุงู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณุŒ ุจู„ ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ู„ู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ู‚ุงุฑู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุนุงู‡ุฑุงุช ู„ุงุซู†ูŠู† ู…ู† ู„ุนุจุฉ
Philistion ู…ู† ุฃู† ู…ู† ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง ุนููŠูุฉ. ูˆูƒู…ุง ุงู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุณูˆู 391ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ู…ู‚ุชู†ุนุง ุฅุฐุง
ูƒุงู† ู…ุฌุฑุฏ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุณู„ูŠู…ุงู†ุŒ “ุฃุนุทูˆุง ู‡ุฐุง ูˆุงุญุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃุทูุงู„ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูŠุนูŠุดูˆู†ุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ู‡ูŠ ุฃู…
ุฃู†ู‡ุง” ุ› ุญุชู‰ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ุงู„ู‡ุฌูˆู… ุนู„ู‰ ุดูŠูˆุฎ ู„ู… ุชูƒู† ูƒุงููŠุฉ ู„ูˆ ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุงุถุงู ุงู†
ุงุฏุงู†ุฉ ู…ู† ูู…ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉุŒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู‚ุงู„ ุฅู† ูƒู„ุง ุงู†ู‡ู… ุดุงู‡ุฏูˆุง ู„ู‡ุง ุจุงู„ูƒุฐุจ ู…ุน ุดุงุจ ุชุญุช ุดุฌุฑุฉุŒ
ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ู… ู†ูˆุงูู‚ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃูŠ ู†ูˆุน ู…ู† ุดุฌุฑุฉ ูƒุงู†ุชุŒ ูˆู…ู†ุฐ ูƒู†ุช ู‚ุฏ ุฃูƒุฏุชุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ูƒู†ุช ุชุนุฑู ุนู„ู‰
ูˆุฌู‡ ุงู„ูŠู‚ูŠู†ุŒ ุงู† ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉ ูŠุญูƒู… ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ุฅู„ู‡ุงู… (ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุฏ ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฃูˆ ู„ุง ูŠูƒูˆู†
ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„)ุŒ ู„ูƒู†ุช ู‚ุฏ ู„ุงุญุธุช ุฃู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุง ูŠุจุฏูˆ ู„ูŠ ุฃู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุจุนุถ ุฃูˆุฌู‡ ุงู„ุดุจู‡ ููŠ ู‚ุตุฉ
ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ู„ุญูƒู… ุณู„ูŠู…ุงู†ุŒ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ู… ุงู„ู…ุชุนู„ู‚ุฉ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ูŠุดู‡ุฏ ุฃู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุฑุฃูˆุง ุฃู† ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูƒุงู†
ู„ู‡ ูุนู„ ููŠ ุงู„ุญูƒู….3052 1 ู…ู„ูˆูƒ ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ. 28. ู‡ุฐุง ู‚ุฏ ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฃูŠุถุง ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ุŒ ู„ูƒุงู† ุฐู„ูƒ
ุจุณุจุจ ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ูˆูƒุงู† ู„ู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุญูƒู… ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ุง ุดูŠูˆุฎ ูˆุชู… ุงู„ุญูƒู… ุจุงู„ุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูˆุตูุช.

12.
ูƒู†ุช ู‚ุฏ ูƒุงุฏ ุฃู† ูŠุทูˆูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู†ุณูŠุงู† ููŠ ุชุตุฑูŠุญุงุช ุฅุถุงููŠุฉ ู„ู‚ุฏ ุฌุนู„ ุญูˆู„
prino – prisein ูˆschino –
schisein
ุตุนูˆุจุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู‡ูˆุŒ ูˆู†ุญู† ููŠ
ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ุฃู† ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงุดุชู‚ุงู‚ูŠ ู„ูŠู„ุงู‡ุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุฏุนูˆุชู‡ู…ุŒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูƒุงู†ุช ููŠ
ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู‡ูŠ ู…ู†ุงุณุจุฉ ุชู…ุงู…ุงุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ูŠุณ ููŠ ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉุŒ ูˆูŠุฌุจ ุฃู„ุง ูŠุฏู‡ุดู†ุงุŒ ุซู…ุŒ ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู†
ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู…ูˆู† ู…ู† ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง ู…ูุชุนู„ุง ุจุญูŠุซ ุงู†ู‡ู… ุนุซุฑูˆุง ุนู„ู‰ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠุฉุŒ
ู…ุดุชู‚ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฌุฐุฑ ู†ูุณู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฅู…ุง ุชุชุทุงุจู‚ ุชู…ุงู…ุง ู…ุน ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ (ูˆุฅู† ูƒุงู† ู‡ุฐุง ู„ุง
ุฃุนุชู‚ุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ู…ู…ูƒู†ุง)ุŒ ุฃูˆ ุชู‚ุฏูŠู… ุจุนุถ ู‚ูŠุงุณุง ุนู„ู‰ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูˆู‡ู†ุง ู‡ูˆ ู…ุซูŠู„ ู„ู‡ุฐุง ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ
ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณ ู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒุงู†ุช ุงู„ู…ุฑุฃุฉ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃุฏู„ู‰ ุจู‡ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู…ู† ุถู„ุน ุงู„ุฑุฌู„ุŒ ูˆุขุฏู… ูŠู‚ูˆู„:
“ูˆูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ูŠุทู„ู‚ ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุฃุฎุฑุฌุช ู…ู† ุฒูˆุฌู‡ุง”. ูˆุงู„ุขู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ูˆู† ุงู†
ุงู„ู…ุฑุฃุฉ ูƒุงู†ุช ุชุณู…ู‰ “ุนูŠุณู‰ุŒ “ูˆุงู†ู‡” ุงุชุฎุฐ “ู‡ูŠ ุชุฑุฌู…ุฉ ู„ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุฉ
ูƒู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ูˆุงุถุญ ู…ู†”
chos ุนูŠุณู‰ isouoth“ุŒ ู…ู…ุง ูŠุนู†ูŠุŒ” ู„ู‚ุฏ ุงุชุฎุฐุช ุงู„ูƒุฃุณ ู„ู„ุฎู„ุงุต ุ› “3053
ุชุจุณูŠุท ุงู„ุนู…ู„ูŠุงุช.
cxvi. 13. ูˆุฃู†ู‡ “ูŠูƒูˆู†”ูŠุนู†ูŠ” ุฑุฌู„ “ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู†ุฑู‰ ู…ู†
ุฎู„ุงู„”
Hesre ุงู„ุฌูŠุด ุงู„ุงุณู„ุงู…ูŠ ู„ู„ุงู†ู‚ุงุฐุŒ “ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‡ูˆุŒ” ุทูˆุจู‰ ู„ู„ุฑุฌู„
“.3054 ุชุจุณูŠุท ุงู„ุนู…ู„ูŠุงุช. ุฃู†ุง. 1. ูˆูู‚ุง ู„ู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏุŒ ุซู…ุŒ “ูŠูƒูˆู†”ู‡ูˆ”
ุฑุฌู„ “ุŒ ูˆ”ุนูŠุณู‰”ุŒ” ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉ “ุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุฃุฎุฑุฌุช ู…ู† ุฒูˆุฌู‡ุง (ูŠูƒูˆู†).
ูˆู…ู† ุซู… ู„ุง ุญุงุฌุฉ ู„ู†ุง ู…ูุงุฌุฃุฉ ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ุจุนุถ ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู…ูŠู† ู…ู† ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ “ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง”ุŒ
ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ูƒุงู†ุช ู…ุฎุจุฃุฉ ููŠู…ุง ุจูŠู†ู‡ุง ููŠ ู…ูˆุนุฏ ุจุนูŠุฏ ุฌุฏุงุŒ ูˆูƒุงู† ุงู„ุญูุงุธ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุฅู„ุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุฃูƒุซุฑ
ุงู„ู…ุณุชูุงุฏุฉ ูˆู†ุฒูŠู‡ุฉุŒ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฅู…ุง ุฅุนุทุงุก ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ู„ู„ ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ูˆุงุญุฏุฉุŒ ุฃูˆ ุถุฑุจูˆุง
ุจุนุถ ู‚ูŠุงุณุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃุดูƒุงู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ุฃู† ุงู„ูŠูˆู†ุงู†ูŠูŠู† ู‚ุฏ ุชูƒูˆู† ู‚ุงุฏุฑุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุชุญุฐูˆ ุญุฐูˆู‡ุง.
ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ููŠ ู…ู‚ุงุทุน ุงุฎุฑู‰ ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ูŠู…ูƒู†ู†ุง ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ุนู„ู‰ ุขุซุงุฑ ู„ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู†ูˆุน ู…ู† ุงุฎุชุฑุงุน ุนู„ู‰
ุฌุฒุก ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู…ูŠู†ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ุงุญุธุช ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูƒู†ุช ุงู„ู…ุฑุชุจ ุทุจุนุงุช ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉ.

13.
ุฃู†ุช ุชุซูŠุฑ ุงุนุชุฑุงุถ ุขุฎุฑุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃุนุทูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉ ุจูƒ: “ูˆุนู„ุงูˆุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูƒูŠู
ูŠุชู… ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃู†ู‡ู… ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ุฃุณุฑู‰ ู„ุฏู‰ ุงู„ูƒู„ุฏุงู†ูŠูŠู†ุŒ ุฎุณุฑ ูˆูุงุฒ ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุนุจ ูˆุทุฑุฏ ูŠุฏูู† ููŠ ุงู„ุดูˆุงุฑุนุŒ
ูƒู…ุง ูƒุงู† ู‚ุฏ ุชู†ุจุฃ ููŠ ุงู„ุณุงุจู‚ ุงู„ุฃุณุฑ ูˆุฃุจู†ุงุฆู‡ู… ู…ู† ุชู…ุฒู‚ ู„ู‡ุง ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุฎุตูŠุŒ ูˆุจู†ุงุชู‡ู…
ู…ุญุธูŠุงุช ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู†ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ูƒุงู† ู‚ุฏ ุชู†ุจุฃุŒ ูƒูŠู ูŠุชู… ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุชู…ุฑูŠุฑ ู…ุซู„ ุนู‚ูˆุจุฉ ุงู„ุฅุนุฏุงู…ุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ
ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฒูˆุฌุฉ ู…ู† ู…ู„ูƒู‡ู… ุฌูˆุงูƒูŠู…ุŒ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ู… ู…ู„ูƒ ุงู„ุจุงุจู„ูŠูŠู† ู‚ุฏู…ุช ุดุฑูŠูƒ ู…ู† ุนุฑุดู‡ุŸ ุซู…ุŒ ุฅุฐุง ู„ู…
ูŠูƒู† ู‡ุฐุง ุฌูˆุงูƒูŠู…ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุงู„ุนุงุฏูŠูŠู†ุŒ ู…ู† ุญูŠุซ ูƒุงู† ุฃุณูŠุฑุง ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง
ุงู„ู‚ุตุฑ ูˆุงู„ุญุฏูŠู‚ุฉ ุงู„ูุณูŠุญุฉุŸ “

ุญูŠุซ
ูƒู†ุช ุงุญุตู„ ุนู„ู‰ “ูู‚ุฏุช ูˆูุงุฒ ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุนุจุŒ ูˆุทุฑุฏูˆุง ู„ู… ูŠุฏูู† ููŠ ุงู„ุดูˆุงุฑุนุŒ” ุฃู†ุง ู„ุง
ุฃุนุฑูุŒ ุฅู„ุง ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ู…ู† ุชูˆุจูŠุงุณ ุ› ูˆุชูˆุจูŠุงุณ (ูƒู…ุง ุฌูˆุฏูŠุซ)ุŒ ูŠุฌุจ ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ู„ุงุญุธุŒ ูˆุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
ู„ุง ุชุณุชุฎุฏู…. ูˆู‡ู… ุญุชู‰ ู„ุง ูŠุชู… ุงู„ุนุซูˆุฑ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ููŠ ุงุจูˆูƒุฑูŠูุง ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆูƒู…ุง ุนู„ู…ุช ู…ู† ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ
ุฃู†ูุณู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ุฃู† ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ุงู„ูƒู†ุงุฆุณ ุชูˆุจูŠุงุณุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ู†ุนู„ู… ุฃู†ู‡ ุญุชู‰ ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุงุณุฑ
ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุณุฑู‰ ูƒุงู†ุช ุบู†ูŠุฉ ูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู… ุจู‡. ุชูˆุจูŠุงุณ ู†ูุณู‡ ูŠู‚ูˆู„: “ู„ุฃู† ุชุฐูƒุฑุช ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู…ู†
ูƒู„ ู‚ู„ุจูŠุŒ ูˆุงู„ุนู„ูŠ ูˆุงุนุทุงู†ูŠ ู†ุนู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฌู…ุงู„ ููŠ ุนูŠูˆู†
NemessarusุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ูƒุงู† ู„ู‡ ู…ุชุนู‡ุฏุŒ ูˆุฐู‡ุจุช ุฅู„ู‰ ูˆุณุงุฆู„ ุงู„ุฅุนู„ุงู…ุŒ ูˆุบุงุฏุฑุช ููŠ ุงู„ุซู‚ุฉ ู…ุน
GabaelุŒ ุดู‚ูŠู‚ GabriasุŒ ููŠ RagiุŒ ู…ุฏูŠู†ุฉ ู…ู† ูˆุณุงุฆู„ ุงู„ุฅุนู„ุงู…ุŒ ูˆุนุดุฑุฉ ูˆุฒู†ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ูุถุฉ “.3055 ุทูˆุจ.
ุฃู†ุง. 12-14. ูˆูŠุถูŠูุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ุฑุฌู„ุง ุบู†ูŠุงุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ “ููŠ ูŠูˆู… ู…ู†
Nemessarus ุฃุนุทู‰ ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุตุฏู‚ุงุช ุงู„ู‰ ุงุฎูˆุชูŠ. ุฃุฏู„ูŠุช ุงู„ุฎุจุฒ ู„ู„ุฌูŠุงุนุŒ ูˆู…ู„ุงุจุณูŠ
ู„ู„ุนุฑุงุฉ: ูˆุฅุฐุง ุฑุฃูŠุช ุฃู…ุชูŠ ุฃูŠ ู…ู† ุงู„ู‚ุชู„ู‰ ูˆูŠู„ู‚ูŠ ุฎุงุฑุฌ ุฃุณูˆุงุฑ ู†ูŠู†ูˆู‰ุŒ ูˆุฏูู†ู‡ุŒ ูˆุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู†
ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุงู„ุฑุงุญู„
Senachereim ุฃูŠ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุฌุงุก ุงู„ูุงุฑูŠู† ู…ู† ูŠู‡ูˆุฏุง ูˆุฏูู†ุชู‡ุง ุณุฑูŠุง (ููŠ ุบุถุจู‡ ู„ุงู†ู‡ ู‚ุชู„
ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ). “ููƒุฑ ู…ุง ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒุชุงู„ูˆุฌ ูƒุจูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุชูˆุจูŠุงุณ ุฌูŠุฏ ุฃูุนุงู„ ู„ุง ุฅุณุชุฏู„
ุนู„ู‰ ุซุฑูˆุฉ ู‡ุงุฆู„ุฉ ูˆุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู…ุชู„ูƒุงุชุŒ ูˆุฎุตูˆุตุง ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูŠุถูŠูุŒ “ูู‡ู… ุฃู† ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ ูƒุงู†
ูŠุณุนู‰ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ูˆุถุนุช ุญุชู‰ ุงู„ู…ูˆุชุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ุณุญุจุช ู†ูุณูŠ ุฎูˆูุงุŒ ูˆุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุณู„ุน ุจู„ุฏูŠ ุณูŠู‚ูˆุง
ุนู†ูˆุฉ ุจุนูŠุฏุง”.3056 ุทูˆุจ. ุฃู†ุง. 19.

ูˆุขุฎุฑ
ุฃุณูŠุฑุŒ
DachiacharusุŒ ุงุจู† AnanielุŒ ุชู… ุชุนูŠูŠู† ุดู‚ูŠู‚ ุชูˆุจูŠุงุณุŒ ุนู„ู‰ ุฌู…ูŠุน ูˆุฒูŠุฑ ุงู„ู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ู…ู„ูƒุฉ ู…ู†
ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ
Acherdon ุ› ูˆู†ู‚ุฑุฃ: “ุงู„ุขู† Achiacharus ูƒุงู† ุญุงู…ู„ ุงู„ูƒุฃุณ ูˆุญุงุฑุณ ุงู„ู…ุฑู…ู‰ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฎุงุชู…ุŒ ูˆู…ุถูŠูุฉ ูˆุจุฑูŠู…ุฑ ู„ู„ุญุณุงุจุงุช
“.3057 ุทูˆุจ. ุฃู†ุง. 22.

MardochaiosุŒ ุฃูŠุถุงุŒ ูŠุชุฑุฏุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ู„ุนุจ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ูˆูƒุงู†ุช ุฌุฑุฃุฉ ู…ู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ุจูŠู„ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ู‡ุŒ
ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ูƒุงู† ุงู„ู…ุฏุฑุฌ ุจูŠู† ูƒุจุงุฑ ุงู„ู…ุชุจุฑุนูŠู† ู„ู„ุงุฑุชุญุดุณุชุง.

ู…ุฑุฉ
ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ู†ู‚ุฑุฃ ููŠ
EsdrasุŒ ุฃู† NeemiasุŒ ุญุงู…ู„ ุงู„ูƒุฃุณ ูˆุงู„ุฎุตูŠ ู„ู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ู…ู† ุงู„ุนุจุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุนุฑู‚ุŒ ูˆู‚ุฏู…ุช ุทู„ุจุง ุญูˆู„
ุฅุนุงุฏุฉ ุจู†ุงุก ุงู„ู‡ูŠูƒู„ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุญุตูˆู„ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ุ› ุจุญูŠุซ ู…ู†ุญุช ู„ 392ุนู„ูŠู‡ุŒ ู…ุน ุนุฏุฏ ุฃูƒุจุฑ ุจูƒุซูŠุฑุŒ ุนู„ู‰
ุงู„ุนูˆุฏุฉ ูˆุจู†ุงุก ุงู„ู‡ูŠูƒู„ ู…ุฑุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰. ุซู… ู„ู…ุงุฐุง ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ู„ู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ุชุณุงุกู„ ุฅู† ูƒุงู† ุฃุญุฏ ุฌูˆุงูƒูŠู…
ุงู„ุญุฏูŠู‚ุฉ ูˆุงู„ู…ู†ุฒู„ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู…ู…ุชู„ูƒุงุชุŒ ูˆุงุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุช ู‡ุฐู‡ ู‡ูŠ ู…ูƒู„ูุฉ ุฌุฏุง ุฃูˆ ู…ุนุชุฏู„ุฉ ูู‚ุทุŒ ู„ู‡ุฐุง ู„ูŠุณ
ู‚ุงู„ูˆุง ู„ู†ุง ุจูˆุถูˆุญ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจุฉุŸ

14.
ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃู‚ูˆู„ ู„ูƒู…ุŒ “ูƒูŠู ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ุฃู†ู‡ู… ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ููŠ ุงู„ุงุณุฑ ุชู…ุฑูŠุฑ ุงู„ู…ุญูƒูˆู… ุนู„ูŠู‡ู…
ุจุงู„ุฅุนุฏุงู…ุŸ”ุŒ ู…ุคูƒุฏุงุŒ ู„ุง ุฃุนุฑู ุนู„ู‰ ุฃูŠ ุฃุณุงุณุŒ ุฃู† ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุง ูƒุงู†ุช ุฒูˆุฌุฉ ู„ู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ
ุจุณุจุจ ุฌูˆุงูƒูŠู… ุงู„ุงุณู…. ูˆุงู„ุฌูˆุงุจ ู‡ูˆุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุดูŠุก ุบูŠุฑ ู…ุฃู„ูˆูุŒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุชุตุจุญ ุฎุงุถุนุฉ
ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ ุงู„ูƒุจุฑู‰ุŒ ุฃู† ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ุฃู† ูŠุณู…ุญ ู„ู„ุงุณุฑู‰ ู„ุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู†ู‡ุง ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉ ูˆู…ุญุงูƒู…
ุงู„ุนุฏู„. ูˆุงู„ุขู†ุŒ ูˆุนู„ู‰ ุณุจูŠู„ ุงู„ู…ุซุงู„ุŒ ุฃู† ุญูƒู… ุงู„ุฑูˆู…ุงู† ูˆุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุจุฏูุน ู†ุตู ุงู„ุดูŠูƒู„ ู„ู‡ู…ุŒ
ูˆูƒูŠู ู‚ูˆุฉ ูƒุจูŠุฑุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงู…ุชูŠุงุฒ ู„ู„ู‚ูŠุตุฑ ูˆ
ethnarch ู„ู‚ุฏ ุ› ุญุชู‰ ูŠุชุณู†ู‰ ู„ู†ุงุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ู„ุฏูŠู‡ู… ุฎุจุฑุฉ ู…ู†ู‡ุŒ ูˆู†ุนู„ู… ุงู†ู‡ ูŠุฎุชู„ู ููŠ
ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠ! ุงู„ู…ุญุงูƒู…ุงุช ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุนู‚ุฏุช ูˆูู‚ุง ู„ู„ู‚ุงู†ูˆู†ุŒ ูˆุจุนุถู‡ู… ุญูƒู… ุนู„ูŠู‡
ุจุงู„ุฅุนุฏุงู…ุŒ ูˆุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฑุบู… ู…ู† ุนุฏู… ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุชุฑุฎูŠุต ูƒุงู…ู„ ู„ู‡ุฐุงุŒ ู…ุง ุฒุงู„ ู„ู… ูŠุชู… ุฐู„ูƒ ุฏูˆู† ุนู„ู…
ู„ู„ุญุงูƒู…ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุชุนู„ู…ู†ุงุŒ ูˆูƒุงู†ูˆุง ุนู„ู‰ ูŠู‚ูŠู† ู…ู† ุฃู†ู†ุง ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุงู†ูู‚ุช ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง
ุงู„ุจู„ุฏ ู„ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุดุนุจ. ูˆู…ุน ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูุฅู† ุงู„ุฑูˆู…ุงู† ูู‚ุท ุชุฃุฎุฐ ููŠ ุงู„ุงุนุชุจุงุฑ ู‚ุจูŠู„ุชูŠู†ุŒ ุจูŠู†ู…ุง ููŠ
ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ุงู„ู‰ ุฌุงู†ุจ ูŠู‡ูˆุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุช ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุงู„ู‚ุจุงุฆู„ ุงู„ุนุดุฑ ู…ู† ุงุณุฑุงุฆูŠู„. ูˆุฑุจู…ุง ูƒุงู†
ุงู„ุขุดูˆุฑูŠูˆู† ุงูƒุชููˆุง ูŠุญุชุฌุฒูˆู†ู‡ู… ููŠ ุฅุฎุถุงุนู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆุงุนุชุฑู ู„ู‡ู… ุจู‡ู… ุงู„ุนู…ู„ูŠุงุช ุงู„ู‚ุถุงุฆูŠุฉ.

15.
ุฃุฌุฏ ููŠ ุฑุณุงู„ุชูƒู… ุจุนุฏ ุงุนุชุฑุงุถ ุขุฎุฑ ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช: “ูˆุฃุถูŠูุŒ ุฃู†ู‡ ู…ู† ุจูŠู† ุฌู…ูŠุน
ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ุŒ ู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุฃุญุฏ ู„ุฏูŠู‡ ู…ู† ุฌู‡ุฉ ุงุฎุฑู‰ ู†ู‚ู„ุช ูƒู„ู…ุฉ
ูƒู„ู…ุฉ. ู„ุงู†ู‡ู… ู„ูŠุณ ู„ุฏูŠู‡ู… ุญุงุฌุฉ ู„ู„ุฐู‡ุงุจ ุฅู„ู‰ ุธุงู‡ุฑุฉ ุงู„ุชุณูˆู„ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุชุŒ ูˆู…ู†ุฐ ุจู‡ู… ูƒุงู†
ุตุญูŠุญุงุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู‡ุฐุง ูˆุงุญุฏุŒ ููŠ ุชูˆุจูŠุฎ ูˆุงุญุฏุฉ ู…ู† ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ุŒ ูˆูŠู‚ุชุจุณ ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุฑุจุŒ
‘ูˆุงู„ุฃุจุฑูŠุงุก ูˆุงู„ุตุงู„ุญูŠู† ุงู†ุช ู„ุง ูŠุฐุจุญ”. ู„ุง ุฃุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ุฃูู‡ู… ูƒูŠู ูŠู…ูƒู†ุŒ ู…ุน ูƒู„ ู…ุง
ุชุจุฐู„ูˆู†ู‡ ู…ู† ู…ู…ุงุฑุณุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุญู‚ูŠู‚ ูˆุงู„ุชุฃู…ู„ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุณุŒ ูˆูƒู†ุช ู‚ุฏ ู„ุงุญุธุช ุงู† ู„ุง
ุงู„ุงู†ุจูŠุงุก ุจุงุณุชู…ุฑุงุฑ ุงู‚ุชุจุณ ุจุนุถู‡ุง ุงู„ุจุนุถ ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุจูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุชู‚ุฑูŠุจุง. ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู…ุคู…ู†ูŠู†
ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ู„ุง ูŠุนุฑููˆู† ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ููŠ ุฅุดุนูŠุงุกุŸ ูˆุงุถุงู “ููŠ ุงู„ุงูŠุงู… ุงู„ุงุฎูŠุฑุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุฌุจู„
ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ูˆุงุถุญุฉุŒ ูˆุจูŠุช ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฌุจุงู„ุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ุง ุณูˆู ูŠุฑุชูุน ููˆู‚
ุงู„ุชู„ุงู„ุŒ ูˆุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ ูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ุชุฃุชูŠ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุนู†ู‡ ูˆูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ูŠุฐู‡ุจูˆุง ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„
ุชุนุงู„ ุฃูŠู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุฏุนูˆู†ุง ุงุตุนุฏ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฌุจู„ ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏุŒ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุจูŠุช ุฅู„ู‡ ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจุŒ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ุณูˆู
ูŠุนู„ู…ู†ุง ุตุงุญุจ ุงู„ุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉุŒ ูˆุณูˆู ู†ุณูŠุฑ ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ: ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุงู„ุฎุฑูˆุฌ ู…ู† ุตู‡ูŠูˆู† ุงู„ุฐู‡ุงุจ ุงู„ูŠู‡ุง ููŠ
ุงู„ู‚ุงู†ูˆู†ุŒ ูˆูƒู„ู…ุฉ ู„ู„ ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ู‚ุฏุณุŒ ูˆูŠุญูƒู… ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ุŒ ูˆูŠุฌุจ ุชูˆุจูŠุฎ ุงู„ุนุฏูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ
ุ› ูˆููŠุถุฑุจูˆู† ุณูŠูˆูู‡ู… ุณูƒูƒุง ูˆุฑู…ุงุญู‡ู… ุฅู„ู‰ ุชุดุฐูŠุจ – ุงู„ุณู†ุงู†ูŠุฑ: ุฃู…ุฉ ู„ุง ุชุฑูุน ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู…ุฉ ุณูŠูุงุŒ
ูˆู„ุง ูŠุชุนู„ู…ูˆู† ุงู„ุญุฑุจ ู…ู† ุจุนุฏ “.3058 ุนูŠุณู‰. ุซุงู†ูŠุง. 2-4

ูˆู„ูƒู†
ููŠ ู…ูŠูƒุง ู†ุฌุฏ ู…ู…ุฑ ู…ูˆุงุฒุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠูƒุงุฏ ูŠูƒูˆู† ุญุฑููŠุง: “ูˆุฎู„ุงู„ ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุฉ ููŠ
ุงู„ุฌุจู„ ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ูˆุงุถุญุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃู†ุดุฆ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฌุจุงู„ุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ุง ุณูˆู ูŠุฑุชูุน ููˆู‚
ุงู„ุชู„ุงู„ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุณูˆู ุชุนุฌู„ ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุนู†ู‡ ูˆูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ ุณูˆู ูŠุฃุชูŠุŒ ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„ุŒ ู‡ูŠุงุŒ ุฏุนูˆู†ุง
ุงุตุนุฏ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฌุจู„ ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏุŒ ุฅู„ู‰ ุจูŠุช ุฅู„ู‡ ูŠุนู‚ูˆุจุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ุง ุณุชุนู„ู…ู†ุง ุตุงุญุจ ุงู„ุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉุŒ ูˆุณูˆู ู†ุณูŠุฑ
ููŠ ุฏุฑูˆุจ ูˆู‚ุงู„: ู„ู„ู‚ุงู†ูˆู† ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ุชู†ุทู„ู‚ ู…ู† ุตู‡ูŠูˆู†ุŒ ูˆูƒู„ู…ุฉ ู„ู„ ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ู‚ุฏุณุŒ ูˆูŠุญูƒู…
ุจูŠู† ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณุŒ ูˆุชูˆุจูŠุฎ ุงู„ุฏูˆู„ ุงู„ู‚ูˆูŠุฉุŒ ูˆููŠุถุฑุจูˆู† ุณูŠูˆูู‡ู… ุณูƒูƒุง ูˆุฑู…ุงุญู‡ู… ุฅู„ู‰ ุชุดุฐูŠุจ
– ุงู„ุณู†ุงู†ูŠุฑ: ุฃู…ุฉ ู„ุง ุชุฑูุน ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู…ุฉ ุณูŠูุงุŒ ูˆู„ุง ูŠุชุนู„ู…ูˆู† ุงู„ุญุฑุจ ู…ู† ุจุนุฏ “.3059 ู‡ูŠุฆุฉ
ุงู„ุชุตู†ูŠุน ุงู„ุนุณูƒุฑูŠ. ุฑุงุจุนุง. 1-3.

ู…ุฑุฉ
ุฃุฎุฑู‰ุŒ ููŠ ุณุฌู„ุงุช ุฃูˆู„ุงุŒ ุงู„ู…ุฒู…ูˆุฑ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูˆุถุน ููŠ ุฃูŠุฏูŠ ุขุณุงู ูˆุงุฎูˆุชู‡ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุซู†ุงุก ุนู„ู‰
ุงู„ุฑุจุŒ ุจุฏุงูŠุฉุŒ “ุงุญู…ุฏูˆุง ุจู…ุนุฒู„ ุงู„ู„ูˆุฑุฏุŒ ู†ุฏุนูˆ ุงุณู…ู‡ุŒ “3060 1
Chron. ุงู„ุณุงุฏุณ ุนุดุฑ. 8. ู‡ูˆ ููŠ ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ู…ุชุทุงุจู‚ุฉ ุชู‚ุฑูŠุจุง ู…ุน ู…ุฒู…ูˆุฑ ุงู„ุณูŠุฑุฉ
ุงู„ุฐุงุชูŠุฉ.ูˆุตูˆู„ุง ุงู„ู‰ “ุงุฏุงุก ูˆุงุฌุจูŠ ูˆุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ู„ุง ุถุฑุฑ ุ›” ูˆุจุนุฏ ุฃู† ูƒุงู† ู‡ูˆ ู†ูุณู‡
ู…ุฒู…ูˆุฑ
xcvi.ุŒ ู…ู† ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ุฒู…ูˆุฑุŒ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฃู…ุฑ ู…ู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ุจูŠู„ุŒ “ุณุจุญูˆุง ุงู„ุฑุจ
ูƒู„ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ”ุŒ ู†ุฒูˆู„ุง ุฅู„ู‰ “ู„ุงู†ู‡ ุฌุงุก ุงู„ุญูƒู… ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ.” (ูƒุงู† ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู†
ูŠูƒูˆู† ุชู†ุงูˆู„ ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ุนู„ู‰ ุญุฏ ุชุนุจูŠุฑ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุงูƒุชู…ุงู„ุง ุ› ุญุชู‰ ู„ู‚ุฏ ุฃุนุทูŠุช ู‡ุฐู‡
ุงู„ุฅุดุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ู‚ุตูŠุฑุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ุชูƒููŠ ู„ุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูˆุถุฉ ุนู„ูŠู†ุง.) ูˆุณูˆู ุชุฌุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุงู†ูˆู† ุญูˆู„
ุนุฏู… ุชุญู…ู„ ุนุจุก ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ุณุจุช ูŠูˆู…ุง ููŠ ุฅุฑู…ูŠุงุŒ ูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ ู…ูˆุณู‰.3061 ุงู„ุณุงุจู‚ูŠู†. ุงู„ุฎุงู…ุณ
ูˆุงู„ุซู„ุงุซูˆู†. 2 ุ› ุงุฎุฑู‰. ุงู„ุฎุงู…ุณ ุนุดุฑ. 32 ุ› ุฌูŠุฑูŠ). ุงู„ุณุงุจุน ุนุดุฑ. 21-24. ูˆุญูˆู„ ู‚ูˆุงุนุฏ
ุงู„ูุตุญุŒ ูˆู‚ูˆุงุนุฏ ู„ู„ูƒู‡ู†ุฉุŒ ู„ูŠุณุช ูู‚ุท ููŠ ู…ูˆุณู‰ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃูŠุถุง ููŠ ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ ุญุฒู‚ูŠุงู„.3062 ููŠ
Levit. ู‡ู†ุง ูˆู‡ู†ุงูƒุ› ุญุฒู‚ูŠุงู„. ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ ูˆุงู„ุงุฑุจุนูˆู†. ุ› ุงุฑุจุนูˆู†. ุ› ุงู„ุฎุงู…ุณ
ูˆุงู„ุงุฑุจุนูˆู† ุ› ุงู„ุณุงุฏุณ ูˆุงู„ุฃุฑุจุนูŠู†. ูƒู†ุช ู‚ุฏ ู†ู‚ู„ุช ู‡ุฐู‡ุŒ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ุง ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑุŒ ู…ุง ู„ู… ุฃูƒู† ู‚ุฏ ูˆุฌุฏุช
ุฃู† ู…ู† ุถูŠู‚ ูˆุฌูˆุฏูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ูŠู‚ูˆู…ูŠุฏูŠ ูˆู‚ุชูŠ ู„ู„ูƒุชุงุจุฉ ู„ูƒู… ู‡ูˆ ุจุงู„ูุนู„ ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู‚ูŠุฏุฉ.

ู„ุฏูŠูƒ
ุงุนุชุฑุงุถ ุขุฎุฑ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฃู† ุฃุณู„ูˆุจ ู…ุฎุชู„ูุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู„ุง ุงุณุชุทูŠุน ุงู† ุงุฑู‰.

ู‡ุฐู‡ุŒ
ุฅุฐู†ุŒ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุฏูุงุน ุนู† ุจู„ุฏูŠุŒ ูˆุฃู†ุง ู‚ุฏ ูˆุฎุตูˆุตุง ุจุนุฏ ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงุชู‡ุงู…ุงุชุŒ ูˆุงู„ูƒู„ุงู… ููŠ ู…ุฏุญ ู‡ุฐุง
ุงู„ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุณูˆุฒุงู†ุงุŒ ู…ุณูƒู† ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ูƒู„ู…ุฉุŒ ูˆุดุฑุญ ุทุจูŠุนุฉ ุฑุงุฆุนุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃููƒุงุฑ. ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุฏูŠุญุŒ
ูˆุฑุจู…ุงุŒ ุจุนุถ ูˆุนู„ู…ุช ูˆุชู…ูƒู† ุงู„ุทู„ุงุจ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุงู„ุฅู„ู‡ูŠุฉ ู‚ุฏ ูŠุคู„ู ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ููŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช.
ูˆู„ูƒู† ู‡ุฐุง ู‡ูˆ ุฑุฏูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุจูƒ ุงู„ุณูƒุชุงุช ุงู„ุฏู…ุงุบูŠุฉุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุชุณู…ูˆู†ู‡ุงุŒ ูู‡ู„ ูŠู…ูƒู†ู†ูŠ ุฃู† ุชุทู„ุจ ู…ู†ูƒ!
ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃู†ุง ู„ุง ุงู„ุขู† ุฃู† ุชู†ุชุญู„ ู„ู†ูุณูŠ. ูŠุง ุณูŠุฏูŠ ูˆุงู„ุฃุฎ ุงู„ุนุฒูŠุฒ
AmbrosiusุŒ
ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูƒุชุจ ู‡ุฐุง ููŠ ุจู„ุฏูŠ ูˆุงู„ุงู…ู„ุงุกุŒ ูˆู„ู‡ุงุŒ ูŠุจุญุซ ููŠ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ุชุตุญูŠุญ ูƒู…ุง ูŠุดุงุกุŒ
ูŠุญูŠูŠูƒ. ุฒูˆุฌุชู‡ ุฃู…ูŠู†ุฉ ูˆู…ุฑุณูŠู„ูŠุงุŒ ูˆุฃุทูุงู„ู‡ุงุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุฃุญูŠูŠูƒู….
Anicetus
ุฃูŠุถุง. ู‡ู„ ู†ุญูŠูŠ ุนุฒูŠุฒุชูŠ ุฃุจูˆู„ูŠู†ุงุฑูŠูˆุณ ุงู„ุฃุจุŒ ูˆุฌู…ูŠุน ุฃุตุฏู‚ุงุฆู†ุง.

ุงุชุฑูƒ ุฑุฏ

ุฒุฑ ุงู„ุฐู‡ุงุจ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุนู„ู‰